Etatism in the Turkish Economy - Dokuz Eylül University
Etatism in the Turkish Economy 1933 1938 Etatism Period 1945 War Economy Reasons of the Etatism Policy
External Factors: Great Depression Law export and import prices after the Great Depression There was rapid industrialization in the USSR. Reasons of the Etatism Policy Domestic Factors:
Falls in production and national income Heavy tax burden especially on farmers Serious falls in exports Foreign exchange bottlenecks Troubles in imports of raw materials Falls in employment Reasons of the Etatism Policy Domestic Factors:
The need for domestic production of previously imported goods Private manufacturers were not successful The reaction to the CHF government in Anatolia Boratav, K. Trkiyede Devletilik s.143 ... Yeni gmrk tarifesinin arkasna snarak dnya fiyatndan birka misli yksee satan basit ve mark bir sanayi tremeye balamt....te
demir telleri keserek ivi yapan, iviyi d piyasa fiyatnn on misline satan, milli sanayi olduu iin demir telleri de hammadde diye gmrksz sokan u ivi fabrikas... Boratav, K. Trkiyede Devletilik s.145 .... Samsuna geldiimiz zaman baka yerde grmediimiz bir manzara karsnda kaldk: Gece her tarafta fevkalade inzibati tedbirler alnmt. stasyondan itibaren btn yollar srgl askerler tarafndan tutulmutu. Bu suretle askerden ve polisten mada kimseyi grmeden, adeta bir dman ehrine henz giren bir kumandan gibi Gazi ve bizler otomobillerle Gazinin misafir
edilecei konaa geldik..... Definition of Etatism Moderates: Government should take action if private entrepreneurs fails to do something Radicals: Government must do everthing that ensures
public interest Etatism in Turkey State-owned business enterprises The establishment and control of the economic life Etatism in Turkey 1932: The Soviet Committee headed by Prof. Orlof prepared the first report
1934: This report was accepted as the First Five Year Industrial Plan Etatism in Turkey First Five Year Industrial Plan:
Covers the 1933-1938 period Industrial production must be based on agricultural products and natural resources Only exception: Industries that will provide high benefit to the society To substitute imports of consumption goods by domestic production The location of industry: Must be close to the natural and labor resources Priority given to: Textile, mining, paper, chemistry, glass and glassware, cement. Etatism in Turkey Second Five Year Industrial Plan:
1939- period Aim was to produce intermediate and investment goods Could not be put into practice because of the WWII Etatism in Turkey It was financed by domestic resources (taxes)
High-technology Production costs were low (limited worker rights) Complements and encourages private sector Import substitution (consumption goods) Question: Why consumption goods but not capital goods are produced? Etatism in Turkey: Results Industrialization started Trade surplus except 1938 Foreign firms that have privileges are liquidated
Railways are nationalized State Economic Enterprises: Smerbank, Etibank, Denizcilik Bankas etc. Agriculture Distribution of state land Area planted increased 1932/1938: Turkish Grain Board Prices are volatile
Tax burden on agriculture Mining and Energy Importance given 1935: General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration
The institute was made responsible of carrying out the necesarry studies, chemical and technological analysis, in order to search and to find mining and stone beds, and then to determine whether they are appropriate for operation or not, and also to educate engineers, assisting personnel and qualified employers for the sector. 1935: Etibank Mines are nationalized 1940: First oil well in Raman Not efficient Electricity production is deficient and costs are high. Industry Domestic demand was satisfied by domestic
production Most successful industry: Average number of workers: Textile (80% of domestic demand) Sugar (No need for imports) Cement (exported)
Iron-steel 1933: 47; 1939:84 Problems: Increased import demand Agriculture-industry competition International Trade Infant-industry argument Clearing agreements Trade surpluses except 1938 1934: Foreign Trade Office Terms of Trade are against Turkey
International Trade (million TL) Year Exports Imports Balance 1933 96,2 74,7
21,5 1938 144,9 149,8 -4,9 1939 127,4 118,2 9,2
1945 218,9 126,2 92,8 National Income National income increased by 9% on average Pre-war period: Agriculture, Industry Post-war period: Services Income distribution problems
1940-1945 Period War economy State of war: Loss of labor force Reduced agricultural production Reduction in tax revenues Reduced imports Increased military expences Capital Resources Money supply: Pre-war period: Rate of increase 0,5 % annual
GDP Growth 5-6 % annual No inflation Post-war period: 483,3 % increase Inflation Capital Resources Budget:
Pre-war period: Budget surpluses 70% indirect taxes Post-war period: Increase in direct taxes New taxes: Varlk Vergisi, Toprak Mahsulleri Vergisi Rise in government expenditures Measures
1940: National Protection Law 1940: Trade Office 1942: Varlk Vergisi Law No: 4305 ktisadi artlarn darlndan doan glkleri istismar ederek yksek kazanlar elde ettikleri halde kazanlar ile mtenasip vergi vermeyenleri istihdaf etmekte ve iinde bulunduumuz fevkalade vaziyetin icap ettirdii fedakarla bunlar da itirak ettirmek maksadn gtmektedir. Mkelleflerin mali (glerini) halk mmessillerinden terekkp eden komisyonlar tayin edecektir. (K. Boratav s.343)
1944: Agricultural Product Tax Inflation Money supply increased Production decreased Inflation Inflation To cope with inflation:
Price controls Government purchased agricultural products at low prices Distribution of basic intermediate goods was done by government
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