Europe - University of Idaho

Europe - University of Idaho

Course Requirements Paper A 2000 word paper (+/- 10%) page research paper, topic to be of students choosing in consultation with professor Due Thursday 5th November Childrens Story critical thinking paper.

A 1500 word paper (+/- 10%) Due Thursday 19th November Portfolio Each student will keep a portfolio for the class which will be split into two blocks. The first block to be handed in on Thursday 15th October the second block to be handed in on Tues 8th December There will be 2 sections within your portfolio

1: This section will relate to the readings from Reading the American Past And the end of each set of readings from this text are a number of comparative questions. The student shall select one (1) question from each set of readings and write a one (1) page answer. 2: Video quiz. On numerous occasions during the class I will show movies, documentaries, and several video clips. Questions will be set before the showing. Your answers to each set of video quizs

will also be kept in the portfolio. Week 2: Portfolio Video Questions

1. How was Cabeza de Vacas Experience in America different from most other Spanish Conquistadors? 2. In the video, Professor David Weber reminds us that in frontier regions A)people tend to develop a new culture. B) democracy always emerges among settlers. C) indigenous culture is totally destroyed. D)expansion moves almost invariably from east to west. Final Due Thursday December 17th 9:30 AM

A take home essay. The question for the take home essay will be America did not exist until 1877: discuss using evidence from the class readings and lectures p.s. I am available for favorite Professor dinners

Everyone is entitled to his own opinion, but not to his own facts. Class covers chronological era up to 1877 the period of reconstruction An are to an is The United States are The United States is Early attempts at colonization

Beringa 1798 Philadelphia French aristocrat ConstantinFrancois de Chasseboeuf meets Miami Chief Little Turtle

Chasseboeuf notices facial similarities between Little Turtle and Asians and points out small gap between continents Isnt it possible asked Little Turtle that the Tartars, who resemble us so closely, came from America? Why shouldnt we have been born here?

Much mystery surrounds the travels of St. Brennan 7th century Catholic Missionary He and crew of 60 are given credit for discovering North America. Artifacts have been found testiying to their exploration of Maine and Nova Scotia.

St. Brennan returned to Ireland and died at age 92 First (?) European transatlantic colonizers Norse or Vikings From Norway, via Iceland and Greenland to Newfoundland L'Anse aux meadows

Some traditions recalled dreams, premonitions, and prophecies that foretold the coming of powerful strangers Europes Expansion

Beginning in 711 Catholics began an attempt to retake Spain from the Muslims (Moors) Finally completed in 1492 with the

marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castille Reconquista 1400 Venice dominated the trade of the Eastern Mediterranean.

Plague hit Europe in in mid 14th century Black Death Changed structure of society 1/3rd population dead Result More food for those still alive Survivors inherit property Peasants began to move around

15th century a dangerous place Big challenges lead to some taking big risks Genoese and Florentines looked west Brought sailing know-how, mercantile

instincts, and banking practices to cities of Spain and Portugal. The commercial community of fifteenth century Lisbon hoped they could find a way to outflank Muslims and Venetians, i.e. those who still held the keys to the doors of African gold and Asian Luxury goods

Portugal Worked with Spain on the Reconquista 1415 Portuguese forces conquered Ceuta, the Muslim bastion at the mouth of the strait of Gibraltar that blocked Portugal's access to the Atlantic coast of Africa Ideal of Reconquista allowed for expansion into heathen lands

Prince Henry the Navigator, son of the Portuguese King from 1415 until death in 1460 acted as an important conduit for bringing together technology, money, and prestige pushed for greater expansion down

Africas coast New ship design the caraval allowed them to take advantage of winds and tacking against the winds It was sturdier and larger than earlier European sea going ships

Portugese came first to the Canary Islands

Appealing because of their inhabitants The Guanche had livestock, which could supply hides, tallow, and wool, early visitors found they could extract orchil, a valued purple dye, from Lichens found on the island. But the Guanche themselves made colonization of the Island difficult

After the Canary Islands were taken Portuguese moved on to Madeira Planted Cane Sugar Like all planters Madeiras new landlords wanted workers that were

plentiful, robust, long lived inexpensive.

Also Africans enslaved by Portuguese explorers from the African coast. First, they brought to the islands a few Jews and Moors who still resided in Portugal Many more Madeiran slaves were Guanche, however, captured

during the most aggressive period of warfare in the Canaries. Cane took root in Madeiras fertile soils Owned and managed by Europeans with social as well as economic aspirations Worked by men and women totally denied such aspirations

This mechanism developed into European dominance plantation agriculture and a slave system to support both This system fell into gear with a loud clunk that would echo on

every continent bordering the ocean Despite success of Portuguese exploring eastern Atlantic Spain first country to head

west looking for the east Christopher Columbus Background

Born sane year as Isabella 1451 Genoa Freelance Sailor Father raised in household of Prince Henry the Navigator Sailed to central Africa Convinced Asia was 2,500 miles

to west (actually 11,000) Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile 1469 Unified Kingdom of Spain 1492Defeated Moors at Grenada

Ends Islamic presence in Spain Sponsor Columbus Tried to persuade Portugal England France Spain To let him sail West to China

Columbuss First Voyage, 1492 Nia, Pinta, Santa Mara San Salvador (Watlings Island) Tainos (Arawaks) & Caribs Cuba & Hispaniola

Claimed land in name of Spain Called locals Indians

Actually Tainos (good - noble) No religion Actually worshipped ZemisAncestral Spirits The people of these lands do not understand me nor do I, nor anyone else that I have with me [understand]

them. And many times I understand one thing said by theses Indians . . . For another, its contrary Columbus talking about Taino The world before Columbus Cabinets of curiosity,

Intellectuals and modern/ changing world The unknown adventurer June 24, 1497 John Cabot stepped onto North American soil

Claimed the land for Henry VII and England Spain major player in Americas in 16th C Major impact on Europe appears to be and was the wealth Another important aspect

Continued exploitation of local population Limited number of migrants to the Spanish New World From 1492 1592 approx 225,000 Still only 1-2% of population

The majority of people to move to New Spain were male 1 women in twenty in 1519 To 1 women in three 1589 Leads to intermarriage Very few women to keep the Spanish bloodlines pure

Limpieza de Sangre clean blood All people categorized and assigned a fixed position in New Spain After Columbuss voyage And increasing Spanish presence in European activities Others begin to follow

But first I want to stay with Spain as they headed north Principal Spanish Explorations of North America Spain in North America

Juan de Ponce de Leon Florida 1521 Killed by Calusa Indians Lucas Vzquez de Ayelln 1521 explores Atlantic coast north of Florida 1526 set up a short lived colony in Georgia 1528 Pnfilo de Narvez surveyed Gulf coast ended in shipwreck

Cabeca De Vaca 1539 Hernando de Soto Francisco Vsquez de Coranado

ex conquistador from Peru spent three vicious years in southeast then died in 1542 buried in the Mississippi southwest and great plains in 1540 looking for the fabulous wealth of the seven cities of Cbola 1542 turned back Juan Rodrguiz Cabrillo

1542 along the coast of California died on Santa Catalina Island off coast from LA. Men sailed on to Oregon before storm turned them back

1565 French begin to show interest in North America Pedro Menndez de Avils founds St Augustine in Florida, by 1600 population of about 500 Second region of Spanish settlement Southwest 1598 Juan de Oate received Kings permission for settlement on Rio Grande

Hoped to find mines Farming and ranching also drew Spaniards into the region Oate never found the vast wealth he wanted

1605 the viceroy in Mexico City recommended that Spanish withdraw from region Isolation Distance from centre Made New Mexico to expensive Especially with Perus Silver and Mexicos gold

Franciscan priests intervened Oate didnt find gold Priests found souls Told crown either

we stay or you will have to move thousands of converts 1608 Crown gave New Mexico reprieve As it did to Spanish Florida New Mexico changed from a proprietary colony to a crown colony

Early French Explorers Giovanni da Verrazano explored Atlantic coast from Carolinas to Nova Scotia in 1534

Jacques Cartier explored St. Lawrence Valley between 1534 and 1543 Samuel de Champlain led eleven voyages to Canada by 1645 Established colony at Acadia (Nova Scotia) Founded Quebec in 1608

Sought friendly relations with Native Americans Efforts were made to restrain fur trade in the colonys population Population 3,000 by 1750 Catholicism only acceptable religion in 1625 Important role of Jesuit Missionaries

Concentrated attention on five confederated Huron nations Believed the Indians could retain their traditions while still accepting Catholicism

Mastered Indian languages and cultures Only Europeans who measured up to Indian standards of bravery New France and the Jesuit Missions 2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under license.

Video Black Robe Church lost ground around 1640s especially after the crown assumed control of New France after 1663 New France Under Louis XIV

Tried to transform colony into model absolutist society Frenchmen also settled in the Caribbean Founded sugar colonies on Saint-Domingue, Guadeloupe Martinique

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