Course Requirements Paper A 2000 word paper (+/- 10%) page research paper, topic to be of students choosing in consultation with professor Due Thursday 5th November Childrens Story critical thinking paper.
A 1500 word paper (+/- 10%) Due Thursday 19th November Portfolio Each student will keep a portfolio for the class which will be split into two blocks. The first block to be handed in on Thursday 15th October the second block to be handed in on Tues 8th December There will be 2 sections within your portfolio
1: This section will relate to the readings from Reading the American Past And the end of each set of readings from this text are a number of comparative questions. The student shall select one (1) question from each set of readings and write a one (1) page answer. 2: Video quiz. On numerous occasions during the class I will show movies, documentaries, and several video clips. Questions will be set before the showing. Your answers to each set of video quizs
will also be kept in the portfolio. Week 2: Portfolio Video Questions
1. How was Cabeza de Vacas Experience in America different from most other Spanish Conquistadors? 2. In the video, Professor David Weber reminds us that in frontier regions A)people tend to develop a new culture. B) democracy always emerges among settlers. C) indigenous culture is totally destroyed. D)expansion moves almost invariably from east to west. Final Due Thursday December 17th 9:30 AM
A take home essay. The question for the take home essay will be America did not exist until 1877: discuss using evidence from the class readings and lectures p.s. I am available for favorite Professor dinners
Everyone is entitled to his own opinion, but not to his own facts. Class covers chronological era up to 1877 the period of reconstruction An are to an is The United States are The United States is Early attempts at colonization
Beringa 1798 Philadelphia French aristocrat ConstantinFrancois de Chasseboeuf meets Miami Chief Little Turtle
Chasseboeuf notices facial similarities between Little Turtle and Asians and points out small gap between continents Isnt it possible asked Little Turtle that the Tartars, who resemble us so closely, came from America? Why shouldnt we have been born here?
Much mystery surrounds the travels of St. Brennan 7th century Catholic Missionary He and crew of 60 are given credit for discovering North America. Artifacts have been found testiying to their exploration of Maine and Nova Scotia.
St. Brennan returned to Ireland and died at age 92 First (?) European transatlantic colonizers Norse or Vikings From Norway, via Iceland and Greenland to Newfoundland L'Anse aux meadows
Some traditions recalled dreams, premonitions, and prophecies that foretold the coming of powerful strangers Europes Expansion
Beginning in 711 Catholics began an attempt to retake Spain from the Muslims (Moors) Finally completed in 1492 with the
marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castille Reconquista 1400 Venice dominated the trade of the Eastern Mediterranean.
Plague hit Europe in in mid 14th century Black Death Changed structure of society 1/3rd population dead Result More food for those still alive Survivors inherit property Peasants began to move around
15th century a dangerous place Big challenges lead to some taking big risks Genoese and Florentines looked west Brought sailing know-how, mercantile
instincts, and banking practices to cities of Spain and Portugal. The commercial community of fifteenth century Lisbon hoped they could find a way to outflank Muslims and Venetians, i.e. those who still held the keys to the doors of African gold and Asian Luxury goods
Portugal Worked with Spain on the Reconquista 1415 Portuguese forces conquered Ceuta, the Muslim bastion at the mouth of the strait of Gibraltar that blocked Portugal's access to the Atlantic coast of Africa Ideal of Reconquista allowed for expansion into heathen lands
Prince Henry the Navigator, son of the Portuguese King from 1415 until death in 1460 acted as an important conduit for bringing together technology, money, and prestige pushed for greater expansion down
Africas coast New ship design the caraval allowed them to take advantage of winds and tacking against the winds It was sturdier and larger than earlier European sea going ships
Portugese came first to the Canary Islands
Appealing because of their inhabitants The Guanche had livestock, which could supply hides, tallow, and wool, early visitors found they could extract orchil, a valued purple dye, from Lichens found on the island. But the Guanche themselves made colonization of the Island difficult
After the Canary Islands were taken Portuguese moved on to Madeira Planted Cane Sugar Like all planters Madeiras new landlords wanted workers that were
plentiful, robust, long lived inexpensive.
Also Africans enslaved by Portuguese explorers from the African coast. First, they brought to the islands a few Jews and Moors who still resided in Portugal Many more Madeiran slaves were Guanche, however, captured
during the most aggressive period of warfare in the Canaries. Cane took root in Madeiras fertile soils Owned and managed by Europeans with social as well as economic aspirations Worked by men and women totally denied such aspirations
This mechanism developed into European dominance plantation agriculture and a slave system to support both This system fell into gear with a loud clunk that would echo on
every continent bordering the ocean Despite success of Portuguese exploring eastern Atlantic Spain first country to head
west looking for the east Christopher Columbus Background
Born sane year as Isabella 1451 Genoa Freelance Sailor Father raised in household of Prince Henry the Navigator Sailed to central Africa Convinced Asia was 2,500 miles
to west (actually 11,000) Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile 1469 Unified Kingdom of Spain 1492Defeated Moors at Grenada
Ends Islamic presence in Spain Sponsor Columbus Tried to persuade Portugal England France Spain To let him sail West to China
Columbuss First Voyage, 1492 Nia, Pinta, Santa Mara San Salvador (Watlings Island) Tainos (Arawaks) & Caribs Cuba & Hispaniola
Claimed land in name of Spain Called locals Indians
Actually Tainos (good - noble) No religion Actually worshipped ZemisAncestral Spirits The people of these lands do not understand me nor do I, nor anyone else that I have with me [understand]
them. And many times I understand one thing said by theses Indians . . . For another, its contrary Columbus talking about Taino The world before Columbus Cabinets of curiosity,
Intellectuals and modern/ changing world The unknown adventurer June 24, 1497 John Cabot stepped onto North American soil
Claimed the land for Henry VII and England Spain major player in Americas in 16th C Major impact on Europe appears to be and was the wealth Another important aspect
Continued exploitation of local population Limited number of migrants to the Spanish New World From 1492 1592 approx 225,000 Still only 1-2% of population
The majority of people to move to New Spain were male 1 women in twenty in 1519 To 1 women in three 1589 Leads to intermarriage Very few women to keep the Spanish bloodlines pure
Limpieza de Sangre clean blood All people categorized and assigned a fixed position in New Spain After Columbuss voyage And increasing Spanish presence in European activities Others begin to follow
But first I want to stay with Spain as they headed north Principal Spanish Explorations of North America Spain in North America
Juan de Ponce de Leon Florida 1521 Killed by Calusa Indians Lucas Vzquez de Ayelln 1521 explores Atlantic coast north of Florida 1526 set up a short lived colony in Georgia 1528 Pnfilo de Narvez surveyed Gulf coast ended in shipwreck
Cabeca De Vaca 1539 Hernando de Soto Francisco Vsquez de Coranado
ex conquistador from Peru spent three vicious years in southeast then died in 1542 buried in the Mississippi southwest and great plains in 1540 looking for the fabulous wealth of the seven cities of Cbola 1542 turned back Juan Rodrguiz Cabrillo
1542 along the coast of California died on Santa Catalina Island off coast from LA. Men sailed on to Oregon before storm turned them back
1565 French begin to show interest in North America Pedro Menndez de Avils founds St Augustine in Florida, by 1600 population of about 500 Second region of Spanish settlement Southwest 1598 Juan de Oate received Kings permission for settlement on Rio Grande
Hoped to find mines Farming and ranching also drew Spaniards into the region Oate never found the vast wealth he wanted
1605 the viceroy in Mexico City recommended that Spanish withdraw from region Isolation Distance from centre Made New Mexico to expensive Especially with Perus Silver and Mexicos gold
Franciscan priests intervened Oate didnt find gold Priests found souls Told crown either
we stay or you will have to move thousands of converts 1608 Crown gave New Mexico reprieve As it did to Spanish Florida New Mexico changed from a proprietary colony to a crown colony
Early French Explorers Giovanni da Verrazano explored Atlantic coast from Carolinas to Nova Scotia in 1534
Jacques Cartier explored St. Lawrence Valley between 1534 and 1543 Samuel de Champlain led eleven voyages to Canada by 1645 Established colony at Acadia (Nova Scotia) Founded Quebec in 1608
Sought friendly relations with Native Americans Efforts were made to restrain fur trade in the colonys population Population 3,000 by 1750 Catholicism only acceptable religion in 1625 Important role of Jesuit Missionaries
Concentrated attention on five confederated Huron nations Believed the Indians could retain their traditions while still accepting Catholicism
Mastered Indian languages and cultures Only Europeans who measured up to Indian standards of bravery New France and the Jesuit Missions 2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning is a trademark used herein under license.
Video Black Robe Church lost ground around 1640s especially after the crown assumed control of New France after 1663 New France Under Louis XIV
Tried to transform colony into model absolutist society Frenchmen also settled in the Caribbean Founded sugar colonies on Saint-Domingue, Guadeloupe Martinique
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