Evidence Based Practice Regarding Chlorhexidine Use to ...
Evidence Based Practice Regarding Chlorhexidine Use to Prevent Surgical Presented by: Site Infection Cindy Magirl Eric Nelson Tennille Sassano Jennifer Vicarie What does the literature say about the use of Chlorhexidine in the prevention of surgical site infections (SSIs)?
It is estimated that between 750,000 and 1 million SSIs occur in the United States each year (Edmiston et al., 2010). SSIs remains a substantial cause of postoperative morbidity and increased health care costs (Riley et al., 2012). SSIs result in 3.7 million additional hospital days and $845 million spent nationally. (Zinn et al., 2010) The aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of evidencebased prevention and control
strategies to reduce rates of SSIs. TABLE 1. Selected Patient and Procedural Characteristics Associated With Increased Risk of Surgical Site Infections
Patient (intrinsic) Procedural (extrinsic) Age Diabetes (metabolic disease) Perioperative hyperglycemia Tobacco use Concurrent infection (distant)
Obesity Malnutrition Immunocompromise Low preoperative serum albumin level Corticosteroid use Prolonged hospitalization before surgery Prior radiation to surgical field tissue Staphylococcus aureus colonization Lack of preoperative shower Site shaving the night before surgery Extended operative time
Flawed skin antisepsis Flawed surgical prophylaxis Effects of the OR environment (eg, hypothermia) Break in aseptic technique Hypothermia or hypoxia Perioperative blood transfusion Surgical technique Hemostasis Tissue trauma Edmiston et al., 2010 Surgical Studies 1978 study showed that application of
CHG to the skin surface resulted in a greater microbial log reduction and it persisted several hours after application compared with povidone iodine 1988 documentation shows that repeat application of CHG 4% was superior to a single shower in reducing staphylococcal skin contamination Edmiston et al., 2010 Total Joint Replacement Surgical Study POSTPRE-INTERVENTION INTERVENTION GROUP
GROUP 737 patients 727 patients Self bathing of CHG Self bathing of 2% impregnated povidone iodine polyester cloths night night prior to prior to surgery and surgery staff assisted bath on After 3 months, admission to hospital 3.19% infection
After 3 months, rate 1.59% infection rate Edmiston et al., 2010 Appraisal Overall the evidence is strong in supporting the use of CHG. In the journal article, the authors identify some weakness within the studies they included. For example, in one of the studies the author lists several problematic issues involving study design, implementation, and analysis. Another weakness of this literature review is several studies were included and because of this, there was a lot of pertinent information left out in order to summarize
the amount of information. LOW TRANSVERSE CESAREAN SECTION SURGICAL STUDY Observational study conducted to determine LTCS SSI rates and impact of infection control interventions from Oct. 2005-Dec. 2008 Included use of 2% Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) for surgical skin prep and no rinse CHG cloths Four study periods Riley et. al, 2012 Low Transverse Cesarean Section (LTCS) Surgical Study
Time Line Baseline Period (October, 2005 - March, 2006) SSI rate retrospective identification for comparison Riley et al., 2012 Low Transverse Cesarean Section (LTCS) Surgical Study Time Line Outbreak Period (April, 2006 October, 2006) Obstetrics and gynecology (OBGYN) clinicians noticed an increase in post-LTCS patients returning with SSI in 2006 Focused on identifying critical control points and analyzing hazards by directly observing LTCS procedures
Labor and delivery (L&D) operating room (OR) walks Self administered employee survey Limited personnel traffic during surgery Improved surgical hand scrub Modified surgical skin preparation Changed the timing of antimicrobial prophylaxis
Revised L&D OR policies Performed SSI prevention in-services Completed employee competency training Low Transverse Cesarean Section (LTCS) Surgical Study Time Line Intervention One Period (November, 2006 September, 2007) Focused on changing practice and fully implementing all recommendations from outbreak period Fully implemented recommendations based on the CDCs SSI prevention guidelines Low Transverse Cesarean Section
(LTCS) Surgical Study Time Line Intervention Two Period (October, 2007 - December, 2008) Chloroprep, a combination of 2% CHG and 70% isopropyl alcohol (IPA) replaced povidone-iodine for surgical skin prep Implementation of preoperative CHG skin cleansing program Scheduled patient performed night before surgery Unscheduled nurse performed as part of pre-surgery prep Moved into new hospital building Changed administration time of antibiotic Nurses in OBGYN clinics educated patients about SSI prevention
Appraisal Evidence in itself was strong based on the reduction of SSIs during the study. However, there were also several limitations to the study: Implementation of multiple interventions at the same time. Which intervention was successful? Cost analysis was not studied in depth. Although patients were instructed to contact their physician for signs and symptoms of infection, no official follow-up was coordinated. Intra-operative Patient Skin Prep
Agents: Is There a Difference? The authors conducted an article review to evaluate if there is a superior intra-operative prep available for open abdominal and general surgery procedures. The authors concluded that there is no one prep that is superior in all situations. Zinn et al., 2010 Comparison of Prep Solutions
Povidone-iodine Advantages Excellent grampositive activity Good gram-negative activity Broad spectrum Moderate rapidly of action Long established as an effective agent Chlorhexidine
Advantages Excellent grampositive activity Good gram-negative activity Broad spectrum Moderate rapidly of action Excellent persistent and residual activity
Zinn et al., 2010 Comparison of Prep Solutions Povidone- iodine Disadvantages Minimal persistence and residual activity Decreased effectiveness in the presence of blood and organic material Lack of recent empirical evidence
Chlorhexidine Disadvantages Contraindicated for use on eyes, ears, brain and spinal tissue, genitalia, mucus membranes Inactivity in the presence of saline solution Drying effect on the skin Zinn et al., 2010
Appraisal Only 29 studies were involved in this literature review Each prep agent has specific advantages and disadvantages. The study reviewed several prep agents because of the considerations for patient allergies, natural flora, surgical site, and surgeon preference. The study did not include any research of ChloraPrep The researchers stated that they did not find adequate information to prove one prep agent used exclusively. The article was easy to read however lacked
Decreasing methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus surgical site infections with chlorhexidine and mupirocin. This was a case controlled study of 29,862 patients over a 3 year period Only orthopedic, cardiac, neurological, and vascular cases were in the study Thompson & Houston, 2012 Purpose of the study To determine if a regimen of 2% chlorhexidine for 5 days pre-op along with intra-nasal mupiricin
Total MRSA SSI reductions from 2006-2008 Thompson & Houston, 2012 Appraisal Pre-operative bathing with 2% chlorhexidine and use of mupiricin ointment may be beneficial in reducing MRSA SSIs Our experience with CHG We currently use a variety of products
ChloraPrep w/ tint 4% chlorhexidine solution ChloraPrep SEPP 2% chlorhexidine cloths Recommendations Use of chlorhexidine intra-op skin prep when not contraindicated Appropriate education to patients and staff about use and application Pre-operative chlorhexidine bathing Ongoing follow up on post operative infection rate References
Edminster, C.E. Jr, Okoli, O., Graham, M.B., Sinski, S., & Seabrook, G.(2010). Evidence for using chlorhexidine gluconate preoperative cleansing to reduce risk of surgical site infection. Association of Perioperative Registered Nurses Journal, 92(5), 509-518. Riley, M., Suda, D., Tabsh, K., Flood, A., & Pegues, D.(2011). Reduction of surgical site infections in low transverse cesarean section at a university hospital. American Journal of Infection Control, doi:10.1016/j.ajic.2011.12.011 Thompson, P., Houston, S. (2012). Decreasing methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus surgical site infections with chlorhexidine and mupirocin. American journal of infection control, 9(3). Zinn, J., Jenkins, J., Swofford, V., Harrelson, B., & McCarter, S.(2010). Intraoperative patient skin prep agents: Is there a difference? Association of Perioperative Registered Nurses Journal, 92(6), 662671. doi:10.1016/j.aorn.2010.07.016
References (Photographs) CMPA Good Practices Guide. 2012. [Surgical Preparation]. Retrieved from http://www.cmpaacpm.ca Mayo Healthcare Pty. Ltd. n.d. Interventional Hygiene. Retrieved from http:// www.mayohealthcare.com.au/products/Resp_intvH ygiene_skinPrep.htm
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