Evolutionary Analysis 4/e

Studying Adaptation: Evolutionary Analysis of Form and Function I.

Experimental manipulation of traits One can isolate and test the effect of single (or multiple factors) on fitness using well-designed experiments.

Adaptive significance of hooked beak Relationship of overhang length to breakage. The overhangs of 13 birds that suffered breaks were initially longer than those of 111 birds

without breaks; http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= 8tjJODKZ_bc Quantifying the role of pollinator-mediated selection on

Silene virginica, S. stellata, and S. caroliniana S. caroliniana 18 mm

S. virginica S. stellata 25 mm

Corolla Tube (flower) Length 10 mm Artificial manipulations: Effect of Corolla Tube Length on

Male Reproductive Success X + 2 STD X

X + 2 STD Dudash et al 2011 Beak Insertion Difference

5 Selection on corolla tube length via male reproductive success S,M,L

S,M,L S,M,L Hummingbirds are agents of selection on S. virginica:

-Corolla tube length (++ MRS), p < 0.0001 Dudash et al. 2011 AJB Fly that mimics its own predator, the jumping spider No effect of treatments on the behavior of OTHER PREDATORS

II. Evolution in the short-term Evolution of Wild Barley Populations in the Middle East in Response to Global Climate Change: Wikipedia

Nevo et al. 2010 III. Tests of association (within population) Desert iguana

Dipsosaurus dorsalis Arrow = temp in lab Garter Snake Thamnophis elegans

IV. Tests of association Across species Percent of C4 species in the Cyperaceae in 25 regions of the USA and Mexico (Teeri et al. Oecolgia 1980

Phylogenetic approaches Grey-headed flying fox Pteropus poliocephalus

Variation in testis size among fruit bats and flying foxes Phylogenetic Comparisons (Am. Nat, 1985, 125: 1-15, Adapted from J. Felsenstein)

Scatter diagram of hypothetical data from 40 species, showing the relationship between Y and X 1 2

39 40 Treating each species independently reflects a phylogeny

where each species and traits, x and y evolved independently Felsenstein Revisited Returning to Bats and Testis Size:

N = 17 N = 11 Pollination and breeding system evolution in Caribbean Gesnerieae

G. decapleura Hispaniola G. fruticosa Hispaniola

G. viridiflora Puerto Rico Marten-Rodriguez, 2010, New Phytologist V. Constraints to Adaptation- lack of genetic variation

Evolution of Heavy Metal Tolerance by Grasses Lack of genetic variation explains lack of adaptation of heavy metal tolerance, from Bradshaw, Proc. Roy. Soc. Biol. Ser. B. 1991

Host Shifts in an Herbivorous Beetle VI. Conclusions How to test for an adaptation Experimental manipulation of trait within species

Short-term evolutionary experiments Tests of associations Phylogenetic analysis of trait association with an environment (group size, etc.) Type and amount of genetic variation

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