Examples of Spatial Diffusion: Disease Diffusion

Examples of Spatial Diffusion: Disease Diffusion

Place/Space, Site/Situation, and Spatial Distributions Review AP Human Geography Bell Ringer 3 weeks in to class, how would you define human geography? Write your definition in

your notebook. Human Geography Geography Geo= Earth Graph= Writing So, literally, Geography means writing about the

earth Human Geography focuses on patterns and processes that shape human interaction with the built and natural environments. Place

A location on the earths surface with a distinctive characteristic Space A two-dimensional area that contains a number of places and boundaries that may or may not be clearly defined.

Sense of Place A set of meanings attach to an area, particularly to the people who know that place well. You can use your five senses when thinking about/describing this place.

Diffusion The movement of a phenomenon from one location to another. Disease Diffusion Refers to the spread of a disease into new locations

Barriers to Diffusion Some physical features act as a barrier towards diffusion, including: Mountains Bodies of water

Political and Economic boundaries may also limit the spread of disease. Travel restrictions and screening of travelers can form human barriers. Public health advice can also help in some cases. Types of Diffusion

Relocation diffusion Contagious diffusion

Hierarchal diffusion Network diffusion Relocation Diffusion Occurs when the spreading disease moves into new areas, leaving behind its origin or source of the disease, for example a person

infected with HIV moving into a new location. Contagious Diffusion The spread of an infectious disease through the

direct contact of individuals with those infected. Hierarchal Diffusion Occurs when a

phenomenon spreads through an ordered sequence of classes or places, for example from cities to large urban areas to small urban areas.

Network Diffusion Occurs when a disease spreads via transportation and networks, for example the spread

of HIV in southern Africa along transport routes. Frictional Effect of Distance (Distance Decay) Suggests that areas that are

closer to the source of something (like a disease) are more likely to be affected by it, whereas areas further away from the source are less likely to be affected and/or will be

affected at a later date. Time-Space Convergence Time-space Convergence as the process that seems to bring places and people closer together, in terms of communicational distance, through the improvement of

communication and transportation technology. Time-Space Convergence Although absolute distance remains the same between two places, the relative distance decreases as the places become increasingly

interconnected through technological and transportation routes. Example: The distance between Chicago and Taiwan remains the same as it was 80 years ago, but people in Chicago and Taiwan are relatively closer because they can communicate quickly via email and airline travel.

Time-Space Convergence and Distance Decay Time-Space Convergence reduces distance decay, the degree that distance is a barrier to communication and travel and the spread of ideas.

Example: with improved telephone and internet connection on top of more available and affordable air travel, the degree that distance inhibits travel and communications is diminishing. This simplifies the transmission or trade of ideas, information, and goods among individuals or groups.

Positive Impacts of Time-Space Convergence increased trade employment opportunities for those in less developed countries. Increased media coverage of wars and conflicts

Improved travel to holy places Improved oil transport and trade Ideas spread quickly and easily Negative Impacts of Time-Space Convergence movement of industry out of the US and into

areas that can pay people less invasion of culture (ie MTV) increase in sweatshops at workers expense Site and Situation AP Human Geography

What is the best location for a large city? Near Water Near Resources Where else?...........

Patterns of urban development occur according to the site and situation of locations: Where it is and whats around it. Site and Situation Patterns of urban development

occur according to the site and situation of locations: Where it is and whats around it. What is meant by site? Site is the actual location of a city.

Cities will grow and prosper in locations that offer some advantages. Examples of Site

Harbor sites: the site of a natural harbor Island sites: the site of islands in strategic locations Confluence sites: the site where rivers converge Hilltop sites: the site at the top of a hill Oasis sites: the site in the desert where caravans

stopped for water New York City became a major city because it is located on a natural harbor.

Paris, France became a major city because it is located on an Island in the Seine River. Hong Kong, China became a major city because

it is located on an Island. What is meant by situation? Situation is another name for relative locationthe location of a city with respect to other geographic

features, regions, resources, and transport routes. Examples of Situation Command of land between rivers Focal point of religious pilgrimage Along trade routes

Supply station for ships Along the U.S. Transcontinental Railroad Baghdad, Iraq became a major city because it commands the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Cape Town, South Africa

grew up on the southern tip of Africa because it supplied ships when they traveled from Europe to Asia

Omaha, Nebraska and Sacramento, California developed on the Transcontinental railroad in the USA Omaha, Nebraska Sacramento, California

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