Experiment one The identification and the assay of Ammonium ...

Experiment one The identification and the assay of Ammonium ...

EXPERIMENT TWO THE IDENTIFICATION AND THE ASSAY OF AMMONIUM CHLORIDE Chemica NH4Cl l structur e Molecul ar

53.49 g/mole INTRODUCTION: Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) is a weak inorganic acid, exists as a white crystalline powder or fine crystals. As most inorganic salts, ammonium chloride is freely soluble in water. SYNTHESIS

NH3 + HCl NH4Cl Uses: As nitrogen source, added to fertilizers and animal nutrients. Pharmacological uses:

As expectorant in cough preparations. As acidifying agent to correct metabolic alkalosis. Reactivity As a weak acid, it can react with strong base such as sodium hydroxide to give ammonia gas, sodium chloride and water.

IDENTIFICATION TEST: Acidity testing Dissolve 1.0 g of ammonium chloride in 10 ml distilled water. Add few drops from methyl red

indicator. Observe the color change. Color of methyl red indicator according to change of pH IDENTIFICATION TEST: Chemical identification testing:

Make a solution of 0.1 g of ammonium chloride in water (2 ml) in a test tube. Acidify with few drops 2M nitric acid. Add 0.4 ml silver nitrate (AgNO3) solution and shake very well.

Observe the color. what is the chemical structure of this precipitate? Informations about today titration Titrant : 1M NaOH Titrand: ammonium chloride Indicator: phenolphthalein Type : acid base titration

Note to have good titration: The rate of reaction is rapid ,the reaction is complete & can be expressed by chemical equation in addition to using a standard solution which is sufficiently stable & react rapidly & completely with analyte &undergo a selective reaction with the analyte that can be described by a balanced PHENOLPHTHALEIN INDICATOR COLOR CHANGED ACCORDING

TO PH ASSAY TEST: Dissolve 1.0 g of ammonium chloride in 20 ml of distilled water. Add a mixture of 5 ml formaldehyde solution which is

previously neutralize with 0.1 M NaOH (why?) and 20 ml distilled water. Leave it for 2 minutes, and then titrate slowly with 1M sodium hydroxide using Phenolphthalein as indicator. Formaldehyde was added. Why? Suggest one reason. Neutralization of formaldehyde is done

Why? Suggest one reason. How ? CALCULATIONS: Note: each 1 ml of 1M sodium hydroxide is equivalent to 53.49 mg of NH4Cl.

Note: according to British Pharmacopeia, ammonium chloride sample should contain not less than 99% and not more than 100.5% of pure, dry NH4Cl (compare your result with this accepted range) SOURCES OF ERRORS

Using dirty glass. Rinsing burette or pipette with wrong solution. Not filling burette properly. Not transferring all solid /liquid. Transferring excess volume of liquid. Using wrong reagent. Leaking titrant from burette. Note : NaOH may adsorb atmospheric CO2

thiosulfate may decompose THINK What is the difference between qualitative test & quantitative test? Which point is happened first the end point or equivalence test? THANKS FOR LISTENING

Any questions?

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