Female Reproductive System

Female Reproductive System

FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Dr. Ayisha Qureshi Assistant Professor MBBS, Mphil FUNCTIONS OF THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 1. Production of ova (oogenesis) 2. Reception of sperm 3. Transport of the sperm and ovum to a common site for union (fertilization, or conception)

4. Maintenance of the developing fetus until it can survive in the outside world (gestation, or pregnancy), including formation of the placenta, the organ of exchange between mother and fetus 5. Giving birth to the baby (parturition) 6. Nourishing the infant after birth by milk production (lactation) Parts of Female Reproductive System Sexual Life of a Female

Sexual Life FEMALE 1 Phase From Birth to Puberty MENARCHE st 2nd Phase From Menarche to

Menopause MENOPAUSE 3rd Phase From Menopause to the end of Life TIL DEATH

OVARIES It is the gonad or primary sex organ in the Female. A woman has 2 ovaries. An ovary performs 2 functions: 1. Gametogenesis (OOGENESIS)- leads to production of an Ova. 2. Endocrine Functionleads to secretion of

female sex hormones (ESTROGENS & PROGESTERONE) THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE Definition: Menstrual cycle is defined as cyclic events that take place in a rhythmic fashion in a female.

Menstrual cycle starts with Menarche which also marks the onset of puberty. Duration: usually 28 days (may vary b/w 20 & 40 days) THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE Periodic release of Ova from Ovaries Depending on

whether there is fertilization of Ova: Ova Fertilized Pregnancy Ova NOT Fertilized Cycle Repeats

CHANGES DURING MENSTRUAL CYCLE During each menstrual cycle, series of changes occur in the ovaries & the accessory sex organs. These changes are divided into 4 groups: 1. Ovarian Changes 2. Uterine Changes 3. Vaginal Changes 4. Changes in the Cervix

OVARIAN CHANGES After the onset of puberty, the ovary alternates b/w 2 phases: 1. Follicular Phase: - characterized by presence of maturing follicles - extends from 5th day of cycle until time of ovulation 2. Luteal Phase: - characterized by presence of corpus luteum. - extends from 15th day of cycle to 28th day. Normally, this cycle is interrupted only by pregnancy and

terminates with menopause. Ovarian Changes FOLLICULAR PHASE Primordial Follicle Primary Follicle Secondary Follicle

Vesicular Follicle Graafian Follicle (the growth takes place under the influence of FSH) OVULATION Takes place under the influence of LH LUTEAL PHASE

Ovulation Corpus Hemorrhagicum Corpus Luteum If fertilization occurs: Corpus luteum of Pregnancy If no fertilization: Corpus albicans

IMPORTANT TERMS: Primordial Follicle= Primordial ovum+ Granulosa Cells(incomplete layer) Primary Follicle= Primordial Follicle+ Granulosa Cells (complete layer) Vesicular Follicle/= Primordial follicle+ Zona Graafian Follicle Pellucida+ Capsule+ Antrum Corpus Luteum= Ruptured follicle+ Lutein cells+

yellowish pigment OVULATION Definition: It is the process by which the Graafian Follicle ruptures with consequent discharge of ovum into the abdominal cavity. It is under influence of LH. Ovulation occurs on the 14th of menstrual cycle in a 28 day cycle. The ovum enters the Fallopian tube. Mechanism: 1. Rupture of Graafian Follicle at the stigma. 2. Follicular fluid oozes out.

3. Follicle freed from the wall of the ovary. 4. Ovum expelled into the abdominal cavity (ovum+ granulosa cells+ secretions= Corona radiata). 5. From there it enters the Fallopian tube through the fimbriated end. The ovum is viable only for 24-48 hours. So it must be fertilized within that time. Functions of Corpus Luteum Corpus Luteum is a glandular yellow body, developed from the rupured Graagian follicle after the release of ovum. Functions:

1. Secretion of hormones: It acts as a temporary endocrine gland. Secretes large quantities of Progesterone & small quantities of Estrogens. 2. Maintenance of Pregnancy: If pregnancy occurs, corpus luteum remains active for 3 months and maintains the pregnancy by secreting various hormones. Abortion results if corpus luteum is removed in the early weeks of pregnancy. UTERINE CHANGES

During each menstrual cycle, along with ovarian changes, uterine changes also occur: 1. Menstrual Phase 2. Proliferative Phase 3. Secretory Phase HORMONES & THEIR ROLE IN MENSTRUAL CYCLE Hypothalamus: releases GnRH. Anterior Pituitary: releases FSH & LH

Ovarian Hormones: Estrogens & Progesterone LH Surge: LH is important for ovulation. Ovulation will not occur if there is no LH surge even if large amounts of FSH are present. The need for large amounts of LH for Ovulation is known as Ovulatory Surge for LH or LH surge. APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY AMENORRHEA: Absence of menstruation HYPOMENORRHEA: Decreased menstrual

bleeding. MENORRHAGIA: Excess menstrual bleeding. OLIGOMENORRHEA: Decreased frequency of menstrual bleeding. DYSMENORRHEA: Menstruation with pain. FUNCTIONS OF ESTROGENS: ESTROGENS Source: Estrogens are secreted in large quantities

by the theca interna cells of the ovaries & to a small amount by the corpus luteum. Chemistry: It is a steroid. Different forms: - estradiol, estrone, estriol Half-life: 30-60 minutes Transport: mostly by albumin & to a lesser extent by globulin. Functions of Estrogens: 1. Effect on Ovarian Follicles: stimulatory

2. Effect on Uterus: prepares the uterus for pregnancy thru the following changes: - enlargement of uterus - increased blood supply to endometrium - Proliferation & dilatation of blood vessels & endometrial glands 3. Effect on Fallopian tubes: stimulatory aiding in the fertilization process in the fallopian tubes. 4. Effect on Vagina: stimulatory thus preventing certain common vaginal infections. 5. Effect on Secondary Sexual characteristics: it is responsible for it. 6. Effect on Breasts: aids in breast development preparing the breast for lactation.

7. Effect on Bones: stimulates Osteoblastic activities. Leads to Osteoporosis in old age. 8. Effect on Metabolism: causes: - anabolism in proteins increasing total body proteins. - deposition of fat in the female body. 9. Effect on Electrolyte balance: causes sodium & water retention. PROGESTERONE: Progesterone

Source: a small amount by the theca interna cells of the ovaries & a larger amount by the corpus luteum. Chemistry: steroid. Half-life: 4-5 minutes Transport: albumin & globulin. FUNCTIONS OF PROGESTERONE: Effect on Fallopian tubes: secretory activities are increased for nutrition of the fertilized ovum.

Effect on Uterus: promotes secretory activities of the endometrium to prepare the uterus for the implantation of the fertilized ovum. Effect on Cervix: increases the thickness of cervical mucosa inhibiting transport of sperm into uterus. Effect on mammary glands: increases the secretory function of the breasts. Effect on Hypothalamus: inhibits release of LH. Thermogenesis: increases body temperature after ovulation.

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