Fitness Training Theory 1. Components of Fitness - Health related - Skill related 2. Principles of Training What is Fitness? There is no universally agreed upon definition of physical fitness and of its components. Definitions for physical fitness include the following:
A set of attributes that people have or achieve that relate to their ability to perform physical activity (Howley & Franks, 2003). A set of attributes, primarily respiratory and cardiovascular, relating to the ability to perform tasks requiring expenditure of energy (Stedmans Concise Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions, 2001). The ability to perform moderate to vigorous levels of physical activity without undue fatigue and the capability of maintaining such ability throughout life (American College
of Sports Medicine, 1998). Health Related Components The health-related fitness components include: muscular strength, endurance, and flexibility body composition cardiovascular endurance
Skill-related Components skill/performance-related fitness relates to those attributes that are important for performance outcomes in specific sports, movements, or occupations. The skill/performancerelated fitness components include agility, balance, coordination, power, reaction time, and speed. Principles of Training
Adaptation to physical activity is governed by a number of general principles that include, but are not limited to, the principles of: - overload - progression - individuality - reversibility - specificity - diminishing returns
- periodization Overload The principle of overload suggests that in order to see an improvement in fitness (i.e., response), the dose of physical activity must exceed that to which the individual is already accustomed. The dose of physical activity is controlled by the manipulation of frequency, intensity, time, and type of
exercise, otherwise known as the FITT principle. Individuality the individual response physical activity is highly heterogeneous No two individuals will respond in exactly the same way to a similar dose of physical activity.
Diminishing Return the rate of fitness improvement diminishes over time as fitness approaches its ultimate genetic potential. Simply stated, as fitness improves, you receive less bang for your buck. Specificity The principle of specificity suggests
that improvements in physical fitness are specific to the demands or characteristics (e.g. if you want to improve joint flexibility you need to train that component specifically) Reversibility The principle of reversibility suggests that any improvement in physical
fitness due to physical activity is entirely reversible. In other words, use it or lose it. Periodization Organization of your training program (macro-cycle) into smaller cycles (meso-cycles) with variations in intensity and volume
Determinants of Physical Fitness Factors that determine the level of an individuals physical fitness are numerous and include: genetically determined (influenced by maturation and heredity) behaviourally determined (influenced by physical activity, diet, and other habits) environmentally determined
Key Domains of Physical Fitness See handout Developing biological components (health related) and neurological (skill-related) components will result in enhancement in key domains of POWER and SPEEDcrucial to most (if not all) sport performance
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