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Gypsum waste can and should be recycled not wasted in landfills Henrik Lund-Nielsen, CEO, MBA Gypsum Recycling International A/S Denmark, Europe HENRIK LUNDNIELSEN CEO Gypsum Recycling International A/S, DENMARK Henrik Lund-Nielsen, 49, is from Denmark. He holds an MBA from Denmark as well as from

California, US. Prior to entering the recycling industry, he worked as a CEO of subsidiary companies of blue-chip Scandinavian corporations, like the VELUX Group. In 2003 he joined Gypsum Recycling International as a main shareholder and CEO. Since then he has spearheaded the companys international expansion in to several new countries and the achievements realised by Gypsum Recycling International under his management have earned the company several environmental awards. Henrik Lund-Nielsen is seen as the father of gypsum plasterboard recycling in Europe and is a frequent speaker at international conferences about recycling, waste and climate change.

Agenda 1. C&D and gypsum waste in landfills around the globe 2. Gypsum waste is problematic in the landfills 3. Benefits of recycling of gypsum waste 4. Successful policy instruments 5. Our proven gypsum recycling solution Cows?????? Cows and the approach to the utilization of

resources found in the waste SOCIALIST APPROACH: You have two cows .

You decide to give one to your neighbor ! COMMUNIST APPROACH: You have two cows . The State takes both and gives you some milk ! BUREAUCRATIC APPROACH: You have two cows . The State takes both, shoots one, milks the other, and then throws the milk away ! FRENCH APPROACH: You have two cows . You go on strike, organize a riot, and block the roads because you want to have three cows and feel that you rightfully deserve them ! AMERICAN APPROACH: You have two cows . You sell one, and force the other to produce the milk of four cows. Later, you hire a consultant to analyze why your only cow suddenly has dropped dead ! You decide to sue your vetenirarian !! GERMAN APPROACH: You have two cows . You re-engineer them so they eat once a month, and milk themselves ! ITALIAN APPROACH: You have two cows

but you don't know where they are. You decide to have lunch ! JAPANESE APPROACH: You have two cows . You re-design them to miniature cows that can produce 20 times the milk of bigger cows ! AUSTRALIAN APPROACH: You have two cows . Business seems pretty good. You close the office and go for a few beers to celebrate ! GRI APPROACH: You have two cows . You clean them up to make them attractive to each other. They produce multiple baby cows that you can milk for many years !!! Summary Traditionally, in most countries gypsum and plasterboard waste has been landfilled mixed with other waste fractions Some countries, mainly European, have found out that this is not the way to go for many reasons:

Landfills are running out of space Gypsum waste is particularly problematic to landfill Landfilling gypsum waste does not utilize the ressources found in the waste Gypsum Recycling International has successfully developed and for more than 10 years operated a technology that fully recycle gypsum plasterboard waste and utilize all the ressources found in the gypsum waste Both fractions: the gypsum and the paper from the gypsum waste, is recycled for a 100% recycling rate C&D and gypsum waste in Landfills Around the Globe

C&D waste is the largest or second largest waste fraction in most landfills around the globe Gypsum plasterboard/ wallboard waste is in most countries one of the 3 largest fractions of the C&D waste landfilled The fraction is growing due to the continued increase in the manufacturing and consumption of plasterboard (particularly in the Middle East) As gypsum waste cannot be incenerated (due to the generation of sulphur dioxide, a toxic gas) landfilling is the most typical disposal route in countries where recycling of gypsum does not occur Worldwide it is estimated that 15 million tons of gypsum waste are landfilled, but as gypsum waste is eternally recycable this does not have to be the case ! Gypsum waste is problematic in the landfills Landfilling gypsum waste make the landfills fill up faster

-> landfills reach their full capacity -> very dificult to extent or build new landfills anywhere in the world Gypsum waste generates hydrogen sulphide gas (H2S) in the landfills if the gypsum waste is not landfilled in a separate cell where no organic waste is present H2S is lethal in large concentrations, and deaths cases have occured in landfills due to H2S As a consequence: Some states in the US and Canada have implemented a ban on landfilling of gypsum waste the EU has implemented regulations requiring that if landfilled, the gypsum waste is landfilled in a separate cell where no organic waste is present Landfilling the gypsum waste lead to that the resources found in the gypsum waste are literally wasted instead of being utilized

Benefits of Recycling Gypsum Waste Gypsum is eternally recycable without loss of quality, due tot the chemical nature of the material Recycling generates local green jobs; landfilling does not require a lot of labor, recycling does Recycling of gypsum waste in many countries lowers the import of expensive gypsum raw materials from abroad Recycling helps the local gypsum industry to obtain raw materials at a lower cost For each ton of gypsum waste that is being recycled instead of landfilled 0,2 tons of CO2 emissions will be saved The Scandinavian and Benelux countries have achieved recycling rates of gypsum waste ranging from 50-85% and the recycled gypsum generated account for 25% of the gypsum raw materials used by the local gypsum plants

Successful policy instruments: Policy Instruments that do NOT work Low or no landfill tax Soft requirements like best efforts to the greatest extent possible Regulations without enforcement; No inspections No tough financial penalties Social contracts with the public, the waste sector or construction sector Why ? Because the waste industry is a for profit business and the operator with the lowest

costs will prevail (also if this is caused by that the operator does not follow the regulations) Consequently recycling will only happen if it makes economic sense to do it the authorities assure that operators not recycling will be penalized Successful Policy Instruments A high Landfill tax ; All studies of the recycling rates and landfill tax in various countries have found that a very positive correlation between high landfill tax and high recycling rates exist The landfill tax in Scandinavia and Benelux is averagely 80 USD / ton High landfill prices; If government controlled landfills, the landfills should price in the lifetime cost of landfilling, not just the direct cost. The average landfill price in Scandinavia and Benelux is around 200 USD/T A high incineration price and tax to avoid C&D waste is sent to incineration, when it can be

recycled instead Required on site segregation (into containers for the different waste fractions) at building sites above a certain size of a certain minimum percentage of the waste generated (typically 60-70%). Requirement for obtaining building permits that a waste plan describing how 70% recycling of the waste made during the building project can be achieved, coupled with requirement to report on the volume of waste sent to recycling after the project has been completed Ban on landfilling of specific waste types, that are recyclable Strong culture of inspections, enforcement and penalties towards the construction and especially the waste sector About Gypsum Recycling International A/S: Summary Worldwide the leading recycler of gypsum/plasterboard waste

The preferred partner for recycled gypsum raw materials for the top 5 plasterboard manufacturers in the world Driven by new innovative solutions Mobile gypsum recycling system Own specialized collection system for gypsum waste Active in 9 countries on 3 continents, including the US and Japan

Recycling units in Europe, North America and Asia Only focused on gypsum/plasterboard waste Winner of numerous environmental awards, a.o. the The Recycler of the Year in Sweden and the prestigious Cleantech Award; given to The most promising Danish Cleantech Company

Gypsum Recycling System (since 2001) 90% 10% In Cooperation with the Best Knauf Gyproc/ Saint-Gobain Siniat/ Lafarge US Gypsum National Gypsum GRI serves all the top plasterboard

groups in the world. Multiple different plants are under contract with GRI for the supply of recycled plasterboard waste. Traditional Gypsum Waste Recycling (the 2001 solution) Only the gypsum resources found in the waste were fully utilized until now Paper fraction was not used as a paper until now, but instead for incineration, composting etc

New Gypsum Paper Recycling Solution Completely in line with the EUs ambition of utilizing all the ressources found in watse Co-funded by the Eco-innovation Initiative of the European Union Investment of more than 2,2 Mio split between EU and GRI New Gypsum Paper Recycling System Previously and Now Previously Now

End result 95% RC gypsum powder 5% RC paper Closing Remarks Gypsum waste is filling up scarce space in the landfills This space could be used for other non-recycable materials instead Gypsum recycling is beneficial economically, environmentally and it generates green jobs All resources found in plasterboard waste can be fully utilized and nothing is wasted

The question is not whether to recycle gypsum waste or not the question is when do you start? Gypsum waste can and should be recycled not wasted in landfills Henrik Lund-Nielsen, CEO, MBA Gypsum Recycling International A/S Denmark, Europe

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