Folie 1 - Mautz

Folie 1 - Mautz

6th Workshop on Positioning, Navigation and Communication (WPNC'09), 19.3.2009 The Challenges of Indoor Environments and Specification on some Alternative Positioning Systems Rainer Mautz ETH Zrich Institute of Geodesy and Photogrammetry Engineering Geodesy - Prof. Dr. H. Ingensand ETH Zurich Overview of Positioning Systems GNSS Alternative Positioning Systems Conclusions & Outlook Contents 1. Overview of Systems 2. GNSS 3. Alternative Positioning Systems - Locata - iGPS - Ultrasound - CLIPS 4. Conclusions & Outlook Engineering Geodesy - Prof. Dr. H. Ingensand ETH Zurich Overview of Positioning Systems GNSS Alternative Positioning Systems Conclusions & Outlook

10 km 1 km 100 m Further classification by: Signal wavelength (Radio Frequencies, Light Waves, Ultrasound, RFID, Terahertz) Principle (trilateration, triangulation, signal strength) Active / passive sensors Application (industry, surveying, navigation) 1m Indoor 10 m Outdoor Range Classification of Positioning Systems 10 m 100 m 1 mm 1 cm 1 dm 1m 10 m 100 m Accuracy graphic: Rainer Mautz Engineering Geodesy - Prof. Dr. H. Ingensand ETH Zurich Alternative Positioning Systems

Conclusions & Outlook CL IPS 100 m 1 km 10 km GNSS 1m Indoor 10 m Outdoor Range Range Overview of Positioning Systems graphic: Rainer Mautz 10 m 100 m 1 mm 1 cm 1 dm Engineering Geodesy - Prof. Dr. H. Ingensand 1m 10 m 100 m

Accuracy ETH Zurich Alternative Positioning Systems Conclusions & Outlook CL IPS 100 m 1 km 10 km GNSS 1m Indoor 10 m Outdoor Range Range Range Overview of Positioning Systems graphic: Rainer Mautz 10 m 100 m 1 mm 1 cm 1 dm

Engineering Geodesy - Prof. Dr. H. Ingensand 1m 10 m 100 m Accuracy ETH Zurich Overview of Positioning Systems GNSS Alternative Positioning Systems Conclusions & Outlook GNSS Performance: Coverage System Principle Geodetic GNSS TOA, lateration, differential technique Outdoor Indoor () RealAccuracy time

mm Range Data Rate Market Cost global 20 Hz yes moderate to high limitations: no direct line-ofsight: obstacles multipath in addition: strong attenuation fading: reflections, diffraction, scattering no general model Engineering Geodesy - Prof. Dr. H. Ingensand ETH Zurich Overview of Positioning Systems GNSS Alternative Positioning Systems

Conclusions & Outlook Attenuation of various building materials (L1 = 1500 MHz) Material Glass Indoors: Wood Roofing Tiles / Bricks 100 times weaker Concrete Ferro-Concrete Factor [-] How[dB] to overcome attenuation? 1-4 0.8 0.4 Increase receiver sensibility 2-9 0.6 0.1 Increase satellite signal power Ultra 5 - 31 0.3 signals 0.001 wideband GNSS Assisted underground: 12 - 43 GNSS 0.06 0.00005 29 - 43 0.001 0.00005 (1997) 10000 times Stone

weaker Signal Strength in Decibel Watt of GNSS Satellites Environment [dBW] Satellite +14 signal strength delivered from satellite Outdoors -155 unaided fixes OK for standard receivers Indoors -176 decode limit for high sensitive receivers Underground -191 decode limit for aided, ultra-high sensitive receivers Engineering Geodesy - Prof. Dr. H. Ingensand ETH Zurich Overview of Positioning Systems GNSS Alternative Positioning Systems Conclusions & Outlook Alternative Positioning Systems - Locata Terrestrial pseudolite transceivers, Locata Corporation in Canberra Augmentation for GNSS in urban canyons, pit mines, buildings Picture from Jonas BERTSCH: On-the-fly Ambiguity Resolution for the Locata Positioning System,

Master Thesis, ETH Zurich, February 2009. Engineering Geodesy - Prof. Dr. H. Ingensand ETH Zurich Overview of Positioning Systems GNSS Alternative Positioning Systems Conclusions & Outlook Locata Key Parameters: System Principle Locata TOA, lateration Outdoor Indoor RealAccuracy time Range 2 mm static 1 cm 2 - 3 km RTK, Signal Frequency

Data Rate Market Cost RF 1 Hz in progress high (+) RTK: 1 2 cm deviations at 2.4 m/s (+) signal magnitude stronger than GNSS (+) indoors dm Challanges: multipath (low elevation) Synchronisation < 30 pico-seconds Picture from J. Barnes, C. Rizos, M. Kanli, A. Pahwa A Positioning Technology for Classically Difficult GNSS Environments from Locata, IEEE Conference, San Diego California, 26 April 2006 Engineering Geodesy - Prof. Dr. H. Ingensand ETH Zurich Overview of Positioning Systems GNSS Alternative Positioning Systems Conclusions & Outlook iGPS laser resection Principle

TOA angular measurements Outdoo Indoo RealAccuracy r r time 0.1 0.2 mm Range Signal Frequency 2 - 50 m RF Data Rate Market Cost 40 Hz in progress high Key design: two or more fixed transmitters rotating fan-shaped laser beams infrared signal various sensors detect arrival times

position determination with spatial forward intersection graphic from Metris Engineering Geodesy - Prof. Dr. H. Ingensand ETH Zurich Overview of Positioning Systems GNSS Alternative Positioning Systems Conclusions & Outlook iGPS iGPS transmitter and sensor during a test in a tunnel Engineering Geodesy - Prof. Dr. H. Ingensand ETH Zurich Overview of Positioning Systems GNSS Alternative Positioning Systems Conclusions & Outlook iGPS Application of iGPS in a tunnel. Master Thesis, ETH Zurich by DAVID ULRICH: Innovative Positionierungssysteme im Untertagebau, July 2008 Results Strengths: - High accuracy (0.1 mm) confirmed

- Real-time, 40 Hz confirmed Problems: - Multipath - Influence of light sources Engineering Geodesy - Prof. Dr. H. Ingensand ETH Zurich Overview of Positioning Systems GNSS Alternative Positioning Systems Conclusions & Outlook Ultrasound Systems Crickets, Active Bat, Dolphin Outdoor Indoor RealAccuracy time System Principle Cricket TOA, lateration 1 2 cm Active Bat TOA,

lateration 1 5 cm DOLPHIN TOA, lateration 2 cm Range Signal Frequency Data Rate Market Cost 10 m ultrasound 1 Hz develop

ment low no moderate no moderate 1000 m2 ultrasound 75 Hz room scale ultrasound 20 Hz Method: TOA, TDOA (ultrasound & RF) Multilateration Engineering Geodesy - Prof. Dr. H. Ingensand ETH Zurich Overview of Positioning Systems GNSS Alternative Positioning Systems Conclusions & Outlook Ultrasound Systems Crickets Student Project: Robot Positioning Ceiling Problems: dependency on temperature maximal range

deployment of reference beacons multipath reliability interference with other sound sources Beacon Listener Floor Engineering Geodesy - Prof. Dr. H. Ingensand ETH Zurich Overview of Positioning Systems GNSS Alternative Positioning Systems Conclusions & Outlook Optical Positioning Systems: ProCam System (AICON) System Principle ProCam optical Outdoor Indoor RealAccuracy time 0.1 mm

Range any room Signal Data Rate Market Frequency infrared 90 points / h yes Mobile probe with CCD camera. Spatial resection of measuring head. relies on coded reference targets. (illuminated by an infrared flash) Pictures from: http://www.aicon.de Engineering Geodesy - Prof. Dr. H. Ingensand ETH Zurich Cost high Overview of Positioning Systems GNSS Alternative Positioning Systems Conclusions & Outlook Optical Positioning Systems: CLIPS (Camera and Laser Indoor Positioning System) Principle Image Based Outdoor Indoor

RealAccuracy time mm-level Range 15 m Signal Frequency Data Rate visible light 30 Hz Market Cost no low Production of laser hedgehog Engineering Geodesy - Prof. Dr. H. Ingensand ETH Zurich Overview of Positioning Systems GNSS Alternative Positioning Systems Conclusions & Outlook CLIPS P3

Principle: P2 P5 P1 P4 Laser Pointer Hedgehog (fixed) basevector Camera (mobile) Probe (optional) Object Engineering Geodesy - Prof. Dr. H. Ingensand ETH Zurich Overview of Positioning Systems GNSS Alternative Positioning Systems Conclusions & Outlook CLIPS Difficulties in detection of laser spots Engineering Geodesy - Prof. Dr. H. Ingensand ETH Zurich Overview of Positioning Systems

GNSS Alternative Positioning Systems Conclusions & Outlook Conclusions Outdoors: GNSS dominating system for open-sky Indoors: No overall solution yet Several indoor systems on the market low accuracy sophisticated setups limited coverage area inadequate costs Outlook signals will penetrate buildings use existing infrastructure for higher accuracy are local installations unavoidable Project CLIPS: Building own indoor positioning system! Engineering Geodesy - Prof. Dr. H. Ingensand ETH Zurich End Engineering Geodesy - Prof. Dr. H. Ingensand ETH Zurich

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