FPGA Technology

FPGA Technology

Chapter 7: Parallel port (General Purpose Input Output, GPIO) --Driving Parallel Loads CEG2400 - Microcomputer Systems CENG2400 Ch7: driving parallel loads v.7a 1 Practical digital circuit interfacing Kh wong CENG2400 Ch7: driving parallel loads v.7a 2 To study 1) How to interface a digital input switch? 2) How to interface LEDs? 3) Produce a stable 5V power source from 9V or higher 4) Produce a 3.3V power supply from an unstable 5V source 5) Interface a 5V output to a 3.3 V input 6) Interface a 3.3V output to a 5V input

CENG2400 Ch7: driving parallel loads v.7a 3 Our experimental kit http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=StWCTTqiTX0&feature=youtu.be http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zMBn_UASS-E Arm board red led switch green led CENG2400 Ch7: driving parallel loads v.7a 4 Our testing board note: a pin may have different functions, you need to initialize it by software before use.

CENG2400 Ch7: driving parallel loads v.7a 5 Driving LEDs from a 3.3V system CENG2400 Ch7: driving parallel loads v.7a 6 1) Interface SW1 to a digital input -- use Resistor-Capacitor (RC) circuit to reduce denounce De-bounce problem: When SW1 is being depressed, the contact is open and closed many times before fully closed. Software solution see appendix debounce1.c Voltage at p0.3 3.3V Problem: Many pulses (rising edges)

Without C3 3.3V With C3 Time CENG2400 Ch7: driving parallel loads v.7a 7 2) To interface a 3.3V digital output to Light emitted Diode (LED)s Each LPC2131 (ARM7) can drive current at IOH= -4mA, IOL=4mA (less than the minimum value [10 mA] to drive an LED) Use transistor to enhance output to drive an LED. CENG2400 Ch7: driving parallel loads v.7a 8 Warning You cannot drive directly an LED from a GPIO (General Purpose Input Output) pin of a LPC2131(ARM7) microcontroller The current required by the LED (>10mA) may cause damage to the GPIO circuitry inside the

LPC2131(ARM7) microcontroller Solution: use transistors or 74LS244 line buffers to amplifier the current to drive the LEDs CENG2400 Ch7: driving parallel loads v.7a 9 You may use 74LS244 to drive the LEDs (a little expensive solution) http://ecee.colorado.edu/~mcclurel/sn74ls240rev5.pdf CENG2400 Ch7: driving parallel loads v.7a 10 Cheaper solution: use transistors (instead of 74LS244 ) to drive the LED from the GPIO (General Purpose Input Output) GPIO (at p0.22) side Each output can drive 4mA current P0.22 drive (3.3-0.7)V/ 1K

=2.6mA LED side Voltage drop of LED is 2V (3.3-2)V/100=13mA (bright enough) Current gain 13mA/2.6mA=5 times 3.3V LED Voltage drop 2V 0.7V CENG2400 Ch7: driving parallel loads v.7a 11 Exercise 7.1 When P0.22 is high (3.3V), calculate

the current passing through R2 when the power supply is 5V and R1=2K and R2=200 Ohms . CENG2400 Ch7: driving parallel loads v.7a 12 3) Produce a stable 5V power source from an unstable 9V (flat battery) Purpose: 9V source can be unstable but output is a stable 5V Method: Use 7805 (LM-78T05) to step down Unstable 9V + 0 Stable 5V CENG2400 Ch7: driving parallel loads v.7a 13

4) Produce a 3.3V power supply from an unstable 5V source using LM1086CT The 5V in the circuit may contain noise because it is being used by motors etc. Use LM1086 to produce a stable 3.3V Unstable 5V Drive motors CENG2400 Ch7: driving parallel loads v.7a 14 5) Working with different voltage standards Different standards RS232 High=+10V Low= -10V MAX232 (TransistorTransistor-level TTL level) High = 5V

Low =0V CENG2400 Ch7: driving parallel loads v.7a LPC213x (Arm7 MCU) High=+3V Low=0V 15 Driving TTL from 3.3V When driving one type of logic from another, need to check voltages and currents are sufficient to do so at the speed that you desire. Level shifters can be used for interfacing. CEG2400 Ch7: Driving Parallel Loads V1a CENG2400 Ch7: driving parallel loads v.7a 16 5) i) Interface a +/-10V standard to 5V (by MAX232), and ii) from Max232 to LPC2131 :convert a 5V to a 3.3 V input

R1 out (0-5V , output of MAX232)RXD0 (03.3V, input of ARM-LPC2131) Use R4,R5 voltage divider to step down from 5V to 3.3V, otherwise it will damage the 3.3V input 0->5V output From RS232 standard input High= +10V Low= -10V MAX232 CENG2400 Ch7: driving parallel loads v.7a To LPC213x 0->3.3V Input of LPC2131: High=3.3V Low=0V 17 6) Interface a 3.3V output to a 5V input TXD0 out(0-3.3V,output of ARM-LPC2131) T1 IN (05V, input of MAX232)

Use R6 (2.2K) , for protection reason To protect it against accidently short to 5V or ground. 0->5V input To RS232 standard output High= +10V Low= -10V CENG2400 Ch7: driving parallel loads v.7a LPC2131 Output: 0->3.3V 18 Exercise 7.2 1) What is the voltage drop of an LED if the color is

Red, (see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Light-emitting_diode ) Blue, White ? 2) Draw the circuit for driving a Blue LED by an output of an LPC2132-ARM7 output pin. The power supply is 5V. 3) Why the Vcc of ARM7 processors are usually set to 3.3V? 4) How do we provide a power supply for an LPC2131-ARM7 processor from a 9V source? CENG2400 Ch7: driving parallel loads v.7a 19 Part 2 Use of LPC2131(ARM7) GPIO (General Purpose Input Output) to drive an LED and read a switch

CENG2400 Ch7: driving parallel loads v.7a 20 General Purpose Input Output (GPIO) P0.0->P0.31, P1.16->P1.31 can be GPIO pins Refer to http://www.nxp.c om/acrobat_dow nload/usermanua ls/UM10120_1.p df for LPC213x (ARM7) specific info CENG2400 Ch7: driving parallel loads v.7a 21 21 Our

experimental kit http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zMBn_UASS-E Arm board red led switch green led CENG2400 Ch7: driving parallel loads v.7a 22 Our testing board P0.22 P0.23 P0.20 CENG2400 Ch7: driving parallel loads v.7a 23

Driving LEDs from a 3.3V system (Green LED is not used here) P0.22 P0.23 P0.20 CENG2400 Ch7: driving parallel loads v.7a 24 Remind you that ARM has Registers (R0-R15) ..etc 32-bit memory addresses (0x0000 0000 to 0xFFFF FFFF) Some addresses are for special functions CENG2400 Ch7: driving parallel loads v.7a 25

Send data to GPIO (General Purpose Input Output) registers ; GPIO Port 0 Register address ; IO0DIR IO0SET IO0CLR IO0PIN EQU EQU EQU EQU 0xE0028008; IO direction 0xE0028004; turn on the bits 0xE002800C;turn off the bits 0xE0028000; pin assignment CENG2400 Ch7: driving parallel loads v.7a 26 The experiment software in

(i) Assembly or (ii) C CENG2400 Ch7: driving parallel loads v.7a 27 (i) To drive the GPIO (General Purpose Input Output) using assembly Step0: After power, by default, IO pins are set in GPIO mode Step1: set GPIO bit direction Loop Step2: Read IO pins, check Sw1 status If sw1 is depressed , goto step4 Step3: Turn off LED if sw1 is not depressed, goto loop Step4: Turn on LED if SW1 is depressed, goto loop

CENG2400 Ch7: driving parallel loads v.7a 28 A simple assembly program GPIO.s (similar to led_sw3.s) When SW1 is depressed, RED-LED is on Define registers Main steps ; GPIO Port 0 Register address

; IO0DIR EQU 0xE0028008 IO0SET EQU 0xE0028004 IO0CLR EQU 0xE002800C IO0PIN EQU 0xE0028000 ; RED_LED EQU 0x00400000; p0.22=RED LED SW1 EQU 0x00100000; p0.20 as SW1 ; ;------------------------------------------------------------; User Initial Stack & Heap AREA |.text|, CODE, READONLY EXPORT __main __main

1) LDR R1, =RED_LED; p0.22 as output 2) LDR R0, =IO0DIR 3) STR R1,[R0]; 4)loop LDR R3, =IO0PIN; read SW1 (p0.22) 5) LDR R3, [R3] 6) TST R3, #SW1;if SW1 depressed R3=0 7) BEQ onled ;if SW1 depressed LEDon 8); 9) LDR R1, =RED_LED ;otherwise LEDoff 10) LDR R0, =IO0CLR 11) STR R1,[R0] 12) B loop 13)onled;------ON LED--------14) LDR R1, =RED_LED; on the LED 15) LDR R0, =IO0SET

16) STR R1,[R0] 17) B loop 18) END CENG2400 Ch7: driving parallel loads v.7a 29 Define registers ; GPIO Port 0 Register address IO0DIR EQU 0xE0028008; IO direction IO0SET EQU 0xE0028004; turn on the bits IO0CLR EQU 0xE002800C;turn off the bits IO0PIN EQU 0xE0028000; address to read pin status

; ;RED_LED EQU 0x00400000; p0.22=RED LED (out) ; in binary =0000 00000100 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000b, so p0.22=out ; by default (reset value) others pins are inputs, so p.20=input SW1 EQU 0x00100000; p0.20 as SW1(input) by default reset value CENG2400 Ch7: driving parallel loads v.7a 30 Main steps

Step1: set direction of GPIO pins p.0.22=output to drive LED Other pins are inputs Including P0.20=input from sw1 1) LDR R1, =RED_LED; p0.22 as output 2) LDR R0, =IO0DIR 3) STR R1,[R0]; 4)Loop LDR R3, =IO0PIN; read SW1 (p0.20) Step2: 5) LDR R3, [R3] Read IO pins and check 6) TST R3, #SW1 ;if SW1 depressed (low) Sw1 status 7) BEQ onled ; if SW1 depressed LEDon 8); Parallel port (GPIO) --Driving Parallel Loads 9) LDR R1, =RED_LED;otherwise LEDoff Step3: 10) LDR R0, =IO0CLR

Turn off LED if sw1 is not depressed 11) STR R1,[R0] 12) B loop 13)Onled;----------------------Step4: 14) LDR R1, =RED_LED; on the LED 15) LDR R0, =IO0SET Turn on LED if SW1 is depressed 16) STR R1,[R0] 17) B loop 18) END CENG2400 Ch7: driving parallel loads v.7a 31 Step1: set GPIO (General Purpose Input Output) bit direction 1) LDR R1, =RED_LED; p0.22 as output 2) LDR R0, =IO0DIR 3) STR R1,[R0]; Step1: set direction of ;RED_LED EQU 0x00400000; p0.22=RED LED (out) ; binary =0000 0000 0100 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000b, assigns bit 22 as out

; others as inputs CENG2400 Ch7: driving parallel loads v.7a GPIO pins p.0.22=output to drive LED Other pins are inputs Including P0.20=input from sw1 32 Step2a: Read IO pins, check Sw1 status Memory location IOPIN holds the status of Input/output Pins P0.x I.e. P0.0 is bit 0 of IOPIN P0.1 is bit 1 of IOPIN : P0.20 is bit 20 of IOPIN CENG2400 Ch7: driving parallel loads v.7a

Open=1 Closed=0 33 Recall: TST and BEQ TST Same as AND (logical AND) except result of operation is not stored. Only the condition code bits (cc) {N,Z,C,V} in CPSR are changed. updates the N and Z flags according to the result Does not affect the C or V flags. BEQ Branch if result equal to zero (branch if Z=1) CENG2400 Ch7: driving parallel loads v.7a 34 34 Step2b: Read IO pins, check Sw1 status

4)Loop LDR R3, =IO0PIN; read SW1(p0.20=bit20 of IOPIN) 5) LDR R3, [R3] 6) TST R3, #SW1 ;if SW1 depressed (IOPIN=0) ;(R3=0) and (#SW1) result is 0, Z flag =1 7) BEQ onled ;if SW1 pressed LEDon,(branch if Z=1) ;If bit 20 of R3 is zero (key depressed) then the zero flag will set by TST R3,#SW1 and this causes the BEQ to branch to ledon. See http://www.keil.com/support/man/docs/armasm/armasm_cegbhjcj.htm Read all 32 GPIO p0.0-P0.31 into R3 Since SW1 EQU 0x00100000; p0.20 (bit20 of IO0PIN)as SW1(input) CENG2400 Ch7: driving parallel loads Test using TST R3, #SW1 ;meaningR3 and 0x00100000status, check only p0.20

v.7a If it is on branch to onled 35 35 Step3:Turn off LED if sw1 is not depressed Defined earlier IO0CLR EQU0xE002800C RED_LED EQU 0x00400000; p0.22=RED LED 9) LDR R1, =RED_LED ; otherwise LEDoff 10) LDR R0, =IO0CLR 11) STR R1,[R0]; writes 0x400000 into IO0CLR ; bit 22(p0.22 of IOPIN cleared 12) B loop CENG2400 Ch7: driving parallel loads v.7a 36 Step4:Turn on LED if SW1 is depressed Defined earlier IO0SET

EQU 0xE0028004 RED_LED EQU 0x00400000; p0.22=RED LED 13)Onled;---------------------- 14) LDR R1,=RED_LED; on the LED 15) LDR R0, =IO0SET 16) STR R1,[R0]; writes 0x400000 into IO0SET ; bit 22(p0.22) of IOPIN set 17) B loop 18) END CENG2400 Ch7: driving parallel loads v.7a 37 37 Exercise 7.3a: Key is not_depressed (key released) IOPIN=0x100000 (bit 20 is 1) Show R0,R1, CPSR( N,Z,V,C )

IO0DIR EQU0xE0028008 IO0SET EQU0xE0028004 IO0CLR EQU0xE002800C IO0PIN EQU0xE0028000 RED_LED EQU 0x00400000; p0.22=RED LED SW1 EQU 0x00100000; p0.20 as SW1 Current Program Status Register =CPSR, N=negative, Z=zero, V=overflow, C-carry ;Fill in the blanks ;_________________________________

R0 , R1 , R3 , NZVC 4)Loop LDR R3, =IO0PIN; read SW1 ; ______________________________ 5) LDR R3, [R3] ;______________________________ 6) TST R3, #SW1;if SW1 depressed 0 ;______________________________ 7) BEQ onled ;if SW1 depressed LEDon ;______________________________ 8); 9) LDR R1, =RED_LED;otherwise LEDoff ; ____________________________ 10) LDR R0, =IO0CLR ; _____________________________ 11) STR R1,[R0] ; _____________________________ 12) B loop ; _____________________________ 13) onled;------ON LED-----------------------14) LDR R1, =RED_LED; on the LED ; _____________________________ 15) LDR R0, =IO0SET ; _____________________________ 16) STR R1,[R0] ; _____________________________ 17) B loop ; _____________________________ 18) END CENG2400 Ch7: driving parallel loads

v.7a 38 Exercise 7.3b: Key is depressed IOPIN=0x00000000 (bit 20 is 0) Show R0,R1, CPSR( N,Z,V,C ) IO0DIR EQU0xE0028008 IO0SET EQU0xE0028004 IO0CLR EQU0xE002800C IO0PIN EQU0xE0028000 RED_LED EQU 0x00400000; p0.22=RED LED SW1 EQU 0x00100000; p0.20 as SW1 Current Program Status Register =CPSR, N=negative, Z=zero, V=overflow, C-carry ;Fill in the blanks

;_________________________________ R0 , R1 , R3 , NZVC 4)Loop LDR R3, =IO0PIN; read SW1 ; ______________________________ 5) LDR R3, [R3] ;______________________________ 6) TST R3, #SW1;if SW1 depressed 0 ;______________________________ 7) BEQ onled ;if SW1 depressed LEDon ;______________________________ 8); 9) LDR R1, =RED_LED;otherwise LEDoff ; ____________________________ 10) LDR R0, =IO0CLR ; _____________________________ 11) STR R1,[R0] ; _____________________________ 12) B loop ; _____________________________

13) onled;------ON LED-----------------------14) LDR R1, =RED_LED; on the LED ; _____________________________ 15) LDR R0, =IO0SET ; _____________________________ 16) STR R1,[R0] ; _____________________________ 17) B loop ; _____________________________ 18) END CENG2400 Ch7: driving parallel loads v.7a 39 Exercise 7.4 : Modify the previous program to initialize the IO pins for the following circuit (Green LED is not used here) P0.6 P0.5 CENG2400 Ch7: driving parallel loads v.7a 40

(i) To drive the GPIO (General Purpose Input Output) Using C A much simpler solution CENG2400 Ch7: driving parallel loads v.7a 41 41 A simple C program GPIO.c When SW1 is depressed, RED-LED is on

#include //define IO0PIN ,IO0DIR.. Etc // see http://www.keil.com/dd/docs/arm/philips/lpc21xx.h #define RED_LED 0x00400000 //set p0.22 as RED LED #define SW1 0x00100000 //set p0.20 as SW1 int main(void) { long tmp; // variable for temp storage of port 0 status IO0DIR = RED_LED;// set p0.22 as output while(1) { tmp =IO0PIN & SW1;//read SW1(p0.20)depressed=0 if(tmp==0) ; What happens if (tmp!=0) is used? IO0SET = RED_LED; //if SW1 pressed LED is on else IO0CLR = RED_LED; // otherwise off the LED } } CENG2400 Ch7: driving parallel loads v.7a 42 Summary Learned how to interface parallel GPIO (General Purpose Input Output) loads Learned how to drive LEDs using the ARM

MCU CENG2400 Ch7: driving parallel loads v.7a 43 Appendix CENG2400 Ch7: driving parallel loads v.7a 44 Our robot Circuits of this chapter are from this design CENG2400 Ch7: driving parallel loads v.7a 45

; led_sw3.s :Testing GPIO_0 for input/output to be run on the LPC2131 board ;(ver. 2013) ; ;Exercise1 : run this program, you should see: ; When you press the button (sw3), the LED(D1) is on, otherwise LED(D1) is off. ; ;Exercise2: Modified the program so your output is reversed:

; When you press the button (sw3), the LED(D1) is off, otherwise LED(D1) is on. ; ;Exercise3: Modified the program, so you you can use sw4 (P0.11) to control LED D2 (P0.21) ; as in exercise 1. ;Exercise4: Modified the program, so when you press sw3 once , ; the LED(D1) will toggle (change state from on_to_off or off_to_on) ; ; Note: LED(D1) is at GPIO P0.10, sw3 is at GPIO P0.20 (also for EINT3 external interrupt input) ; Note: LED(D2) is at GPIO P0.11, sw4 is at GPIO P0.21 ; Note: LED(D3) is at GPIO P0.12, sw5 is at GPIO P0.22 ; Note: LED(D4) is at GPIO P0.13, sw6 is at GPIO P0.23 AREA |.data|, DATA, READWRITE IO0DIR EQU 0xE0028008 ; pin direction IO0SET EQU 0xE0028004 ; pin value set IO0CLR EQU 0xE002800C ; pin value clear IO0PIN EQU 0xE0028000

; pin value read & write RED_LED EQU 0x00000400; 0100,0000,0000B p0.10=RED LED SW3 EQU 0x00100000; 0001,0000,0000,0000,0000,0000B,p0.20 is SW3 AREA |.text|, CODE, READONLY; User Initial Stack & Heap EXPORT __main __main ; set p0.22(red led) as output using the IO0DIR register LDR R1, =RED_LED LDR R0, =IO0DIR STR R1,[R0]; loop LDR R3, =IO0PIN; target at the IO0PIN register LDR R3, [R3]; load IO0PIN value to R3 register ; if the switch is depressed, corresponding pin value is 0 TST R3, #SW3;test on pin 20 of IO0PIN to see if SW3 is depressed BEQ onled ;if IO0PIN[20]=0, go to onled to light the led ;otherwise LEDoff offled LDR R1, =RED_LED

LDR R0, =IO0CLR STR R1,[R0] B loop ;------ON LED--------; write 1 in the 22nd bits of IO0SET to turn on the LED onled LDR R1, =RED_LED LDR R0, =IO0SET STR R1,[R0] B loop CENG2400 Ch7: driving parallel END v.7a Led_sw3.s Improved version loads 46

USB-LPC2131 board testing procedure USB-LPC2131 board testing procedures, based on the LPC2131 board (version 2012) and led_sw3.s. Build the project files for led_sw3.s as before. In uvision4>> project >>rebuild all target files>> if there is 0 errors and 0 warning, your program is ok. If you configured the USB-serial sys. before, skip the next step. Install the USB-Serial driver to your PC: Follow " Installation of Philips Flash Utility " as shown in the next slide. Procedures to download the hex program to the LPC2131 board. Power on the board.

slide sw2 (slide switch) of your board to opposite side of program. Press reset on the LPC2131 board. In uvision4>> >>Flash >>click on download>> Then you will see the download animation (a blue bar is sliding horizontally). It means your program is downloaded successfully to the LCP2131 board. Procedure to run the program: Slide sw2 (slide switch) of your lpc2131 board to program, press reset again and your program is running. For led_sw3.s, when you press sw3, the LED (D1) should be on. Otherwise it is off. CENG2400 Ch7: driving parallel loads v.7a 47 --- Installation of Philips Flash Utility and the USB-Serial driver --Install Philips Flash Utility Installation . run " Philips Flash Utility Installation.exe " Install USB-serial driver Download the driver from http://www.ftdichip.com/Drivers/CDM/CDM20828_Setup.exe To check if the usb-serial driver is working , plug the lpc2131 board to the PC through the USB cable given. Win7 will recognize the USB device and In win7>>control panel>>system>>device manager, you should see this under Ports(COM & LPT) list as a com device, e.g. com4. Configure the tools: In vison4>> Flash >> Configure flash tool>>

Select Output >> click on the "create HEX file" box. Select linker >> "click on the "USE MEMORY Layout from target Dialog box" Select Utilities>> Enter Argument as "#H" ^X $D COM4: 57600 1 , if com4 is used (for the USB port, see win7>>control_panel>>system>>device manager to find out ) Enter Command the LPC210x_ISP.exe you installed earlier. E.g. C:\Program Files (x86)\ Philips Semiconductors\Philips Flash Utility\LPC210x_ISP.exe on the lpc2131 board, Power on, plug in the usb cable to the computer. Slide the switch sw1 to (opposite side of program). Press reset. In uvision 4, choose Flash >> download , for downloading the code to the board. Slide sw2 (slide switch) of your Ch7: lpc2131 board toloads program CENG2400 driving parallel 48 v.7a to run the target program.

Press reset again of the LPC2131 board Appendix Alternative set bit method in C. The command << is a left shift instruction in the C language Y=0x1<<21;//left shift 21 bits, this sets bit21=1 and other bits= 0 Example: Before shift Y=0x1=0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0001 (Binary) After shift Y= 0000 0000 0010 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 (Binary)

bit 31 bit 21 bit0 Exercise: set bit 9 of register R to be 1, other bits to be 0. Answer=0x1<<9; So R=0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0010 0000 0000 (Binary) =0x200 Bit9 =1 CENG2400 Ch7: driving parallel loads v.7a 49 Software solution debounce1.c

#include //debounce1.c #define RED_LED 0x00000400 //set p0.10 as RED LED #define SW3 0x00100000 //set p0.20 as SW3 int main(void) { long tmp; // variable for temporary storage of port 0 status int flag; IO0DIR = RED_LED; // set p0.10 as output tmp = IO0PIN & SW3; // read SW3 (p0.20) while(1) { while(tmp==0) tmp = IO0PIN & SW3; // wait SW3 (p0.20) change to high while(tmp!=0) tmp = IO0PIN & SW3; // wait SW3 (p0.20) change to low if(flag==0) { flag = 1;

IO0SET = RED_LED; //turn on LED } else { flag = 0; IO0CLR = RED_LED; //turn off LED } } } CENG2400 Ch7: driving parallel loads v.7a 50

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