Frank Wood's Business Accounting 1 Twelfth Edition

Slide 37.1 Chapter 37 Manufacturing accounts Frank Wood and Alan Sangster, Frank Woods Business Accounting 1, 12th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2012 Slide 37.2 Learning objectives After you have studied this chapter, you should be able to:

Calculate prime cost and production cost of goods manufactured Draw up a manufacturing account and income statement Adjust the manufacturing account in respect of work-in-progress Frank Wood and Alan Sangster, Frank Woods Business Accounting 1, 12th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2012 Slide 37.3 Manufacturing accounts Manufacturing

businesses prepare a manufacturing account, in addition to the income statement, that is for internal use only. Instead of a figure for purchases, the trading account will contain the cost of manufacturing the goods that were manufactured during the period. The manufacturing account is used to calculate and show the cost of manufacturing those goods the production cost. Frank Wood and Alan Sangster, Frank Woods Business Accounting 1, 12th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2012

Slide 37.4 Divisions of costs In a manufacturing business, costs are divided into two types: It is the prime and production cost items that feature in the manufacturing account. Frank Wood and Alan Sangster, Frank Woods Business Accounting 1, 12th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2012 Slide 37.5

Direct and indirect costs Any direct costs can be traced to an item being manufactured. The sum of the direct costs is the prime cost. If a cost cannot be directly traced to the manufactured product, it is considered an indirect cost. Indirect costs are considered factory overheads The prime cost plus indirect costs is the production cost.

Frank Wood and Alan Sangster, Frank Woods Business Accounting 1, 12th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2012 Slide 37.6 Other costs There are other cost classifications in manufacturing accounts. Administration expenses are any managerial or office related expenses. Selling and distribution expenses are any sales, marketing or advertising expenses.

Financial charges are any bank related charges and the cost of discounts allowed. Frank Wood and Alan Sangster, Frank Woods Business Accounting 1, 12th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2012 Slide 37.7 The format of the financial statements The manufacturing account contains all direct and indirect costs. The trading account follows the usual

format with the inclusion of the production cost of goods completed. The profit and loss account contains all administration expenses, selling and distribution expenses and financial charges. Frank Wood and Alan Sangster, Frank Woods Business Accounting 1, 12th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2012 Slide 37.8 The financial statements

Frank Wood and Alan Sangster, Frank Woods Business Accounting 1, 12th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2012 Slide 37.9 Example of a manufacturing account Frank Wood and Alan Sangster, Frank Woods Business Accounting 1, 12th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2012 Slide 37.10 Example of a manufacturing

account (Continued) Frank Wood and Alan Sangster, Frank Woods Business Accounting 1, 12th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2012 Slide 37.11 Work-in-progress The production cost carried down to the trading account is that of the production cost of goods completed during the period.

If any items have not been completed, they cannot be sold and so should not appear in the trading account. Therefore a calculation is needed to decide on the transfer to the trading account: Frank Wood and Alan Sangster, Frank Woods Business Accounting 1, 12th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2012 Slide 37.12 Work-in-progress (Continued)

Frank Wood and Alan Sangster, Frank Woods Business Accounting 1, 12th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2012 Slide 37.13 Activity Frank Wood and Alan Sangster, Frank Woods Business Accounting 1, 12th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2012 Slide 37.14 Activity (Continued)

Frank Wood and Alan Sangster, Frank Woods Business Accounting 1, 12th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2012 Slide 37.15 Activity (Continued) Frank Wood and Alan Sangster, Frank Woods Business Accounting 1, 12th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2012 Slide 37.16 Apportionment of expenses Sometimes

expenses will have to be split between indirect manufacturing costs and one of the profit and loss account expenses such as administration or selling expenses. In this situation, a method of apportionment must be used to split the expense. An example could be rent, which would be apportioned using floor area. Frank Wood and Alan Sangster, Frank Woods Business Accounting 1, 12th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2012

Slide 37.17 Learning outcomes You should have now learnt: 1. Why manufacturing accounts are used 2. How to prepare a manufacturing account and income statement 3. That the trading account section of the income statement is used for calculating

the gross profit made by selling the goods manufactured Frank Wood and Alan Sangster, Frank Woods Business Accounting 1, 12th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2012 Slide 37.18 Learning outcomes (Continued) 4. That the profit and loss account section of the income statement shows as net profit what is left of gross profit after all

administration, selling and distribution and finance costs incurred have been deducted 5. That work-in-progress, both at the start and the close of a period, must be adjusted so as to identify the production costs of goods completed in the period Frank Wood and Alan Sangster, Frank Woods Business Accounting 1, 12th Edition, Pearson Education Limited 2012

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