Freehold and Englishtown/Manalapan School Districts Sheltered ...

Freehold and Englishtown/Manalapan School Districts Sheltered ...

Tri-District Henry Hudson Regional, Highlands Elementary, and Atlantic Highlands Elementary Schools Sheltered Learning Day 2 Elizabeth Franks, Ed. D. & Tedesco. M.A.T. [email protected] Barbara [email protected] WIDA Consultant Language & Literacy Associates for Multilingual and Multicultural Education LLAMAME, LLC Franks/Tedesco Parking Lot 1. Write down anything that you have a question about without putting your name on the paper. 2. Stick it on the sheet labeled Parking Lot at any time of the day. 3. Back-channeling using digital tools to ask questions Objectives Participants will:

Four key terms/phrases Strategic vocabulary Scaffold Student Engagement Formative Assessment Building Background Key vocabulary emphasized National Literacy Panel on Vocabulary Need for direct instruction of academic vocabulary items required for specific texts (content-based) Repetition and multiple exposures Learning in rich context

Active engagement in learning tasks-inclusive of extended oral discourse Computer technology Incidental learning (read-alouds, storytelling) Multiple methods Importance of Vocabulary Instruction Vocabulary Gap Gap in word knowledge persists though the elementary years. (White, Graves, & Slater, 1990) The vocabulary gap between struggling readers and proficient readers grows each year. (Stanovich, 1986) After the primary grades, the achievement gap between socioeconomic groups is a language gap. (Hirsh, 2002)

One of the most persistent findings in reading research is that students vocabulary knowledge is related strongly to their reading comprehension and to other overall academic success (Lehr, Osborn, & Hiebert, 2004) Importance of Vocabulary Instruction Vocabulary Gap Meaningful Differences in Cumulative Experiences (Hart & Risley, 1995, 2003) Words heard Working per hour vocabulary 3 year-olds Below poverty level 616

525 Working Class 1,251 749 Professional 2,153 1,116 Quantity of vocabulary

@ 40,000 by the time of high school graduation @3,000 per year 180,000 word families 3,000 most frequent words account for @ 75% of words in adult texts ELs (current and long term) need to learn more words, need more powerful instruction and need assistance with word-learning strategies. Vocabulary Tiers Second Tier First Tier Highest frequency Words - essential to understanding all content

words used for area texts; targeted to everyday speech instruction Simple multiple Appear frequently across meaning words domains; polysemous /multiple meaning Words needed for academic conversations and explanations Complex idioms Cognates (true/false) Homonyms (cell/sell)

Third Tier Lowest frequency Words needed to understand the content concept Specific to the content Likely not to encounter in a lifetime There are no lists for tiers 1, 2, 3. Each group of students will be different based on difficulty of words and background knowledge of student Beck, McKeown & Kucan (2002) ; Foldable - Ogden Polysemous/Multiple Meaning Words

Eighty-five percent (85%) of the most often used words have multiple meanings Word: Division Math Setting/Situation Meaning Government Biology Military Business (actually has 11 meanings) Todays Purpose

How do students acquire and extend their academic vocabulary across the school day? Intentional Instruction: Words are identified by Subject and/or grade level. 5 4 3

2 1 Words are identified using a framework for selection. Word lists include general, specialized, and technical vocabulary and are shared across grade levels.

All grade levels select a range of general, specialized, and technical vocabulary by subject, but these are only shared within the grade level. Some words have been selected by grade level and

subject, although these are driven by textbook lists (primarily technical vocabulary). Individual teachers are applying a framework for selecting vocabulary, although these are not being

shared outside of the grade level. Individual teachers have identified words using the textbook (technical vocabulary), and these are not known to others in the grade level and school.

Today we will look more closely at how we select vocabulary as a school. General, Specialized and Technical Vocabulary On an October day in 1753, Robert Dinwiddie, Royal Governor of His Majestys Colony in Virginia, sat in his office in Williamsburg, the capital of Virginia, reading the latest reports from the frontier. The French were causing trouble again, pushing their way into British land. There was a whiff of war in the air. Dinwiddie must have realized that Virginias western boundary was fuzzy. Some Virginians even said that their colony stretched across the continent. But Dinwiddie knew that grand old claim was not realistic. He needed only turn to a map to see North America as it really was. (Allen, 2004, pp. 12)

The Problem: Too Many Words! 17 words identified in 2 paragraphs Ideal is 810 a week for deep teaching (Scott, Jamieson-Noel, and Asselin, 2003) Must be narrowed, but how? Vocabulary Selection ALLs need to know words that are frequent across multiple texts. ALLs need to know the words and phrases that are crucial to understanding the text (using text dependent questions). Adapted from Diane August 2014 NABE

Conceptual Complexity Conceptually complex - more difficult to acquire; so require more intensive instruction Conceptually complex Image-ability - a word that could be drawn Concreteness - a word that can be easily perceived through the senses Relatedness the degree to which understanding the word requires an understanding of related concepts Adapted from Diane August 2014 NABE Conceptually Complex Continuum Imageability Easy: Dinosaur, pencil

Concreteness Concrete: eggs, run Somewhat: prevent, abandoned Somewhat: expensive, peered Not image-able: spirit, promise, merely

Abstract: Indeed, era Adapted from Diane August 2014 NABE Relatedness Few networks have low relatedness: lion Dense networks have high relatedness: economy Questions for Selecting Vocabulary

1. Representative 2. Repeatability 3. Transportable Is it critical to understanding? Will it be used again? Is it needed for discussions or writing? 4. Contextual Analysis 5. Structural Analysis 6. Cognitive Load Can they use context to figure it out? Can they use structure? Is it a cognate? Have I exceeded the number they can learn?

Adapted from Graves, 2006; Nagy, 1988; Marzano & Pickering, 2005 Using Word Lists to Identify Vocabulary Dolch Sight Word List (Grades K3) Ogdens Basic English Word List (Grades K4, and English learners of all ages) Dreamed of a universal language 850 phonetically regular words Word Part Lists (Grades 36) Focus on prefixes, derivations Academic Word List (Coxhead, 2000)(Grades 56) 570 headwords from textbooks

Vocabulary Websites Academic Word List (AWL) blications/awlsublists1.pdf lio/bravohiebertpearson_2005_pdf_11446.pdf es/strategyguides/1268813_SG_Walk%20in%20the%20woods.pd f Free Rice-World Hunger & Vocabulary For each answer you get right, they donate 10 grains of rice to the United Nations World Food Program. WARNING: This game may make

you smarter. ... It is a website where users play various educational, multiplechoice games in order to fight world hunger. For every answer the user answers correctly, 10 grains of rice are donated. The games include English vocabulary (the game the site began with), multiplication tables, pre-algebra, chemistry (basic and intermediate), English grammar, basic foreign language vocabulary for English speakers (French, German, Italian, and Spanish), geography (world capitals and country identification), and identification of famous artwork. Marzanos Approach Adopt a district or building based template Develop a vocabulary list by grade/content When do you know a word? Quick write and snowball

Meaning Spelling Pronunciation Derivations Connotations Register Collocations Intentions Idioms Antonyms/Synonyms Use of Imagery TEACHING VOCABULARY TO BUILD KNOWLEDGE Targeting depth of word knowledge Multiple planned exposures

High utility academic words Direct instruction & word learning strategies Lesaux, 2013 Anchored in text Marzanos Six Step Vocabulary Strategy Vocabulary Map: Frayer Model Essential characteristics

Nonessential characteristics New vocabulary term Examples Non-examples Vocabulary Map 1. Write the word: Does it contain a prefix? Is it a compound word? Does it contain a suffix? 2. Write a sentence using the word:

Write the word in your 1st language: Is it a cognate? Yes No 3. Write the definition: Write a synonym: 4. Illustrate the meaning of the word: Write an antonym:

B. Avila/C. Schlessinger ESL Curriculum Exemplar 9-12 4-Corners Vocabulary: Mind Map and Visual Aid Word: Picture: opals Word in context: Definition: In Coober Pedy, Australia, Beautiful stones, called miners dig opals from under gems, used to make jewelry. the ground.

Vocabulary Notes Format Word Meaning Example Sentence Oral Practice glacier Large white ice

block or ice mountain The glaciers near the North and South poles are melting. Glaciers are larger and colder than

________ CREATE Protocol Vocabulary word: boundary Translation: lmite Student friendly definition: a fixed line that separates one thing from another Picture/graphic organizer/ map Synonym: border Sentences for context Turn and Talk prompt Word Consciousness Prefix Base word

Suffix re produc(e) tion demo crat ic im

migrat(e) tion semi colon re phras(e) ing Word Consciousness

Noun phrases Guest speaker Picture book Vowel sound

Time line Coffee trade Food production Trade route Food pyramid Portion control Square root Root Beer Word combinations Graphic organizer Present tense Relative pronoun Annotated bibliography (Works cited) Common good

Economic system Historical document Grace period More Vocabulary Resources Sonoma County Office of Education ocabulary-comprehension.html Online vocabulary profiler (Tom Cobb) Quick Reads (Elfrieda Hiebert) (Elfrieda Hiebert) te_edition.pdf (Elfrieda Hiebert) Word Generation (Catherine Snow) Tag Galaxy Flocabulary produces educational hip-hop music to teach vocabulary, reading, social studies, math and science. Word Up Project Roger Farr, et al. Vocabulary Knowledge Rating Chart Rating Scale: 1= I dont know it at all. 2= Ive seen it or heard it before. 3= I think I know what it means, but I could use a

review. 4= I know it well and I could easily teach it to the group. Target Word juxtaposed detritus hubris ambiguous What I think it means: Rating Before Rating After

Anticipation Guide: Comprehension of Vocabulary Agree or Disagree Dyad _____ 1. SIOP is a protocol to use for ELLs. _____ 2. A parking lot is a strategy for students to post what they learned . _____ 3. CALPs take two years to develop. _____ 4. It is too time-consuming to bring realia into lessons. Word Generation transport import portion portfolio important

portage Portland port-a-potty report export portmanteau -port Which of these words are related to the meaning of the root-port? More ideas and games Charades, Scattergories, Outburst, Password, Taboo, Pictionary

Crossword puzzles Collocation puzzles: Family __(tree) 1. ancestry map tree_ ________ 2. Commercial forest _______ ________ 3. cow _______ _________ 4. John Belushi movie _______ _________ 5. _______ ____ ____ Partner work Watch the video. Listen for these words and check them off as you hear them in the video: _____ cheat _____ fourteen _____ show _____ percent

Working with a partner, watch the video two more times without the sound. Each time, a partner will narrate As you narrate, use as many of the words in the list as possible. Use one of the following transitional words to build the simple sentence into a complex sentence: First, by Sort-List-Group-Label People King George III Colonists Sons of Liberty

British Indians Places Boston Harbor England Taxes- foods tea sugar Taxes - Other Stamps Newspapers Paint glass

Tax Acts Sugar Act Stamp Act Townshend Revenue Act Quotes Tax the tea Like a giant teapot Lobsters No taxation without representation

Categorize Human Word Sort Review your list and categorize: Multiple meanings Interdisciplinary Word analysis (affixes, nominalizations, etc.) Four Part Vocabulary Program Provide rich and varied language experiences Teach individual words Teach word learning strategies

Foster word consciousness Graves (2006) Using Context With your partner, discuss a definition of the underlined words using the context of the sentence. 1.The crocodile is worthy of admiration in that it is extant. 2.The hardstand must be replaced. It is simply so damaged that it is now dangerous. 3.Haploids are less likely to mutate. 4.Given the time period, Cervantes was forced to lucubrate in order complete his work in a timely fashion.

5.Disguised in mufti, the man shocked the crowd when he pulled a gun. (Carrigg, 2006) Vocabulary Activity A Mardsan Giberter for Farfie Gils was very fraper. She had denarpen Farfies mardsan. She didnt talp a giberter for him. So she conlanted to plimp a mardsan binky for him. She had just sparved the binky when he gibbled in the gorger. Clorsty mardsan! she soffed. Thats a croustich mardsan binky, soffed Farfie. But my mardsan is on Stansan. Agan is Kelsan. Carrigg, 2006 Box Tops Fern Jurgrau of JP Stevens HS, Edison, NJ

A way to make practice/review fun with vocabulary. On a sheet of paper number the paper 1-5 and write 5 words to practice. Divide the box into 5 equal parts and write a student-friendly definition for each word in order. Cut the box into strips and mix them up. Read the word, find the strip with the definition and place it at the top. Go through the same process for each word. Have the student turn over each strip in place to see if it formed the picture to monitor their own accuracy. o If in pairs, one student can read a word and the other picks out the definition lining up the strips. o Can be done in Box Top stations in varying degrees of difficulty i.e. 10 or more words or even 3 words. Box Tops Fern Jurgrau of JP Stevens HS, Edison, NJ

A way to make practice/review fun with content. Cut a box into strips. Write one step of a sequence on each strip. Have students put in proper order. Have the student turn over each strip in place to see if it formed the picture to monitor their own accuracy. o If in pairs, one student can read a question and the other picks out the answer lining up the strips. o Can be done in Box Top stations in varying degrees of difficulty. o Students can create the Q & A to stump their peers. Jigsaw Vocabulary Four in a group Each person has a different clue to identify the

vocabulary word Start with general description and narrow definition Use box tops for the self-check (optional) e-school-vocabulary-development Provide ample opportunities to use learning strategies Use of scaffolding techniques Use a variety of question types used, including those that promote higher-order thinking skills throughout the lesson Continuum of Strategies Gradual Increase of Student Independence

Gradual Release of Responsibility Grant Wiggins Teacher-centered Teacher-assisted Peer-assisted Student-centered Lecture Drill and practice Role-playing Rehearsal strategies Direct instruction

Discovery learning Peer tutoring repeated readings Demonstration Brainstorming Reciprocal teaching think-alouds Recitation Guided instruction Collaborative Elaboration strategies Focused instruction Discussion Cooperative learning creating a phrase making connections mental and/or guided imagery

creating analogies Organizational strategies graphic organizers outlining two column notes clustering/chunking information Learning Strategies Cognitive Strategies Concepts P Skills Content

(Payne) Cognitive Strategies: Three Stages Input Elaboration Output (Feuerstein, 1980) Gradual Increase of Student Independence Teacher directed Guided practice feedback/formative assessment May need to go back to teacher directed

Teacher directed Guided practice Collaborative learning feedback/formative assessment May need to go back Recursive process Reading Strategies Conscious thinking plans that learners use to make sense of what theyre reading and learning thinking processes that reside in learners head Predict, clarify, summarize, question, visualize Reciprocal+Teaching+Presentation

Student-centered strategies Rehearsal Strategies Repeated readings in reciprocal teaching: Model each strategy and have students practice. questioning, clarifying, summarizing, predicting Think-alouds Model the strategy Scaffold until students can complete the think aloud The GIST Generating Interactions between Schemata and Text Broken pieces of rock and stone that you find on the ground contain fossils. Buildings made of limestone or marble might contain

fossils, too. You might find fossils in rocks cut to make space for new houses. When a road is cut through a hill of rock, fossils can sometimes be found. You might also find fossils if you walk along a stream, a river, a lake or an ocean. GIST Underline ten or more most important words. Write a summary sentence or two using as many of the listed words as possible. SQP3R Survey the passage Question- create them from headings or

words in bold print or read questions at end Predict Read the passage Recite by creating an oral or written summary Review by answering the questions SQP3R Teaches and reinforces cognitive and metacognitive strategies Students who are good readers perceive themselves as strategic readers who have a variety of strategies at their disposal. They can use a set of strategies, coordinate them and shift when appropriate.

Student-centered strategies Elaboration strategies - students use elements of what is to be learned and expands them by relating other information to it (ex. creating a phrase, making a connection, creating an image, making an analogy). A phrase or sentence may be applied to the information. Ex. The World Trade Center was attacked on September 11, 2001. The date, "9-11" also refers to an emergency situation. The attack on the WTC certainly constituted an emergency situation. A relationship may be drawn (based on specific characteristics found in the stimulus material). Drawing a picture in your notes or creating picture in your mind. Student-centered strategies Organizational Strategies Graphic organizers Advanced organization

Outlining Two column note-taking STARS Cornell example Learning Strategies CALLA Metacognitive Cognitive Planning Advanced organization Organizational planning Selective attention Self-management Grouping

Monitoring Comprehension Production Clarification Evaluating Self assessment Social Affective Questioning for clarification Elaboration of Prior Knowledge

Cooperation Summarizing Self-talk Note-taking Interactive Notebooks Imagery Auditory representation

Making inferences Scaffolds Quick write Write your definition of scaffolding and an example. Scaffolding Quick write Write your definition of scaffolding and provide an example. Identify whether your examples were verbal, procedural or content-based. Share with a partner. Verbal Procedural

Content Questioning Researchers have found that of the approximately 80,000 questions the average teacher asks annually, 80% of them are at the literal or knowledge level. (Gall, 1984, Watson & Young, 1986) Challenge to design HOT questions Blooms Taxonomy to Plan Lessons Category Action verbs Questions

Knowledge List, identify, locate, memorize, label, describe, name, match, read What is..? Who was..? When did? How would you show? Can you recall? Comprehensio n Recall, reproduce, explain, give an example, demonstrate, translate, rephrase

Why did? How would you describe? What is the main idea? Will you state in your own words? Application Predict, Solve, categorize, show, apply, make, build, choose What would you use to..? What examples can you find? What would happen if..? Analysis

Analyze, take apart, separate, compare, contrast, show relationships between, draw conclusions How is .. related to..? What conclusions can you draw? What inferences can you make? Why do you think Evaluation Assess value, make choices based on arguments, verify evidence

How would you assess..? Decide which is best.., Rank the responses.., What would you recommend? Convince.., Create Build, combine, compile, construct, create, design, elaborate, test, invent How would you improve..? What changes would you make to solve..? Can you propose an alternative solution?

How well do you know your HOTS? The Pledge of Allegiance ___ Paraphrase the Pledge. ___ Write a class pledge. ___ Should the Pledge be said everyday? Support your position. ___ Write the Pledge. ___ What does liberty and justice on the playground mean? ___ Compare the Pledge to another pledge (i.e. Scouts, etc.).

How are they the same, and how are they different? Comprehension Read the following text and then answer the questions in complete sentences. A krinklejup was parling a tristlebin. A barjam stipped. The barjam grupped, Minto to the krinklejup. The krinklejup zisked zoely. 1. 2. 3. 4. What was the krinklejup doing? What stipped?

What did the barjam grup? How did the krinklejup zisk? INTERACTION Numbered Heads Together Number each participant in the group. Review list of cooperative learning activities. Put your heads together to share your best cooperative learning anecdote (e.g., a task where students exceeded expectations or a lesson where something went wrong). Call on one number to share one of the stories. Factors influencing the choice of

interaction strategies Motivation Gender Cultural background Attitudes and beliefs Type of task Age and L2 stage/proficiency Learning style 4 Corners Activity English Language Learners are often reticent to contribute to class discussions. An important role for a sheltered teacher is to encourage ELLs to participate in non-threatening ways. Bilingual education is the best approach for teaching ELLs.

What are the pros and cons of primary language support in sheltered classrooms? Inside/Outside Activity 1.Create two circles inner and outer. 2.Have students face a partner 3.Students in inside circle ask a question. 4.After students in outer circle answer, they move one person to the right. Aka the Conga Line Twist: Quiz, Quiz Trade Chunk and Chew Practical Strategies for Accelerating the Literacy Skills and Content Learning of your ESL Students by Jo Gusman

CHUNK 1. Teacher presents lesson in 11 17 minute chunks. The lesson needs to be engaging using multiple intelligences including: bodily-kinesthetic, musical, and spatial. CHEW 2. Students have 5 15 minutes to process the chunk. You can use one of the following ways to have students process. Intrapersonal/Reflection Time: Students draw and write in journals, reflect, talk to themselves in their native language, or silently reread information. L1 or L2 Partners: Partners review and reteach the chunk with a partner in native language or English. Cooperative Learning Group: Use cooperative learning to process CHUNK. Whole Class: Use guided practice techniques to process information in the CHUNK.

Grouping Configurations Think-Pair-Share Think-Pair-Square Think-Round Robin Numbered Heads Together/Jigsaw Carousel or Gallery Walk Inside/Outside Circle Lesson Delivery

Content objectives clearly supported by lesson delivery. Language objectives clearly supported by lesson delivery. Students engaged approximately 90% to 100% of the time. Pacing of the lesson appropriate to the students ability level. ucationlab/SIOP/Lesson_Delivery_Fact_vs_Opinion_T4T_iPad.mp4 Two Cents Discussion In order to share you must put in your two cents. You may not share a second time until everyone has put in their two cents.

What are some factors that contribute to high levels of student engagement? Review and Assessment Key Vocabulary Multiple exposures Paraphrasing Multiple modalities Key Content Conten Review during and at end of lesson Check predictions Outcome sentences

Regular Feedback on Student Output Paraphrasing answers Oral, written through gestures and body language Assess Student Comprehension of Objectives Ongoing Informal Authentic Rubrics Ideas

Revisit a K-W-L chart Aha moment 3-2-1 Quick write, quick draw Journal Writing Outcome sentences: I learned I began to wonder I practiced I thought I understoodI didnt understand I still have questions about Alphabet Review Objectives

Participants will: Four key terms/phrases Strategic vocabulary Scaffold Student Engagement Formative Assessment Ticket Out Place your Ticket Out on the poster board upon leaving. 1 thing I will definitely try Websites (Teaching Tolerance) by content and by tiers with lesson plans The 14 Words that Make All the Difference Kate Kinsella s/compleat-links-volume-4-issue-4-(december-2007)/learner-made-vocabulary-cards-inthe-eap-classroom Kate Kinsella et al Edugame- software and game wands .K-12 math, LA, Science, and Social Studies The Flesch/FleschKincaid readability tests are designed to indicate comprehension difficulty when reading a passage of contemporary academic English. ... Kathy Schrock's Guide for Educators - Fry's Readability Graph - Cached Similar Websites (continued)

Wilson, K (2008). Multicultural Education. Retrieved from e-sprenger f Vocabulary by Jim Burke ppendix.pdf by Jim Burke, a sampler sthash.zr0d9tYm.dpbs Jim Burke and vocabulary Websites 3.html (Graphic Organizers) (Strategies) (Instructional strategies) Reciprocal Teaching Advancement Via Individual Determination (AVID) Blooms Taxonomy Bloom and Technology

Webbs_DOK_Guide.pdf by Depths of Knowledge by Norman L. Webb %20Compared%20with%20Blooms%20Taxonomy.pdf Cafe strategies References (Teaching with Intention) /chaiklin.zpd.pdf Lev Vygotsky Individual & Group Accountability Tips to Evaluate Internet Resources questioning Quiz, quiz, trade in Social Studies You Tube of Quiz, quiz, trade gclid=CLvp3or_1boCFWrNOgodpEoAgA Trainers Warehouse Thats a Family Thats A Family! - YouTube Similar to Thats A Family! - YouTube Aug 17, 2009 ... What kids want us to know about what "family" means today. That's A Family! is a part of GroundSpark's Respect for All Project. Resources Thats a Family YouTube v=lnYWCtX3Us4 Aug 17, 2009 ... What kids want us to know about what "family" means today. That's A Family! is a part of GroundSpark's Respect for All Project. Books Beals,Melba Pattillo. (1994). Warrior Dont Cry: A Searing Memoir of the Battle to Integrate Little Rocks Central High. New York: Pocket Books

Moody, Anne. Coming of Age in Mississippi (1968) References Beck, I, McKeown, M, & Kucan, L, (2002). Bringing Words to Life: Robust Vocabulary Instruction. NY: Guilford Press. Beck, I, McKeown, M, & Kucan, L, (2002). Creating Robust Vocabulary: Frequently Asked Questions & Extended Examples NY: Guilford Press. Fisher, D., Frey, N & Williams, D.(2002). Seven Literacies Strategies that Work. Educational Leadership, 60(3), 70-73. Fisher, D. Frey, N. (2008). Word Wise Content Rich: Five Essential Steps to Teaching Academic Vocabulary. Portsmouth: Heinemann. Fisher, D., Rothenberg, C., Frey, N. (2007).Language Learners in the Classroom. Urbana: NCTE. Frey, N., Fisher, D. (2009). Learning Words Inside & Out. Portsmouth: Heinemann.

Graves. M., August, D., Mancilla-Martinez, J. (2013). Teaching Vocabulary to English Language Learners. New York: Teachers College Press. Hiebert, E.H., & Lubliner, S. (2008). The nature, learning, and instruction of general academic vocabulary. In A.E. Farstrup & S.J. Samuels (Eds.), What research has to say about vocabulary instruction (pp.106-129). Newark, DE: International Reading Association. References

Marzano, R. ( 2004). Building Background Knowledge for AcademicAchievement: Research on What Works in Schools. Marzano, R. (2010). Teaching Basic and Advanced Vocabulary. Boston: Heinle. Marzano, R. and Simms, J. (2013). Vocabulary for the Common Core. Bloomington: Marzano Research Laboratory. Nash, R. (1997). NTCs Dictionary of Spanish Cognates. Chicago: Il: NTC Publishing Group. Overturf, B., Montgomery, L., Smith, M. (2013). Word Nerds: Teaching All Students to Learn and Love Vocabulary. Portland: Stenhouse. Sprenger, M. (2013). Teaching the Critical Vocabulary of the Common Core. Alexandria: ASCD Wilfong, L. ( 2013). Vocabulary Strategies that Work: Do This-Not That. Larchmont: Eye on Education References Carter, M. Hernandez, A., Richison, J. (2009). Interactive Notebooks and English Language

Learners. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Chamot, A. (2009). The CALLA Handbook: Implementing the Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach. White Plains, NY: Pearson. Fisher, D. & Frey, N. (2008). Better Learning Through Structured Teaching: A Framework for the Gradual Release of Responsibility. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Frey, N., Fisher, D., Everlove, S. (2009). Productive Group Work: How to Engage Students, Build Teamwork, and Promote Understanding. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Jensen, E. (2005). Top Tunes for Teaching. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin. Langer de Ramirez, L. (2010). Empower English Language Learners with Tool From the Web. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin . Rutherford, P. (2010). Meeting the Needs of Diverse Learners. Alexandria, VA: Just Ask Publications. Vogt, ME.,& Echevarria, J. (2008). 99 Ideas and activities for teaching English learners with The SIOP Model. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Zike, D. (2008). Notebook Foldables For Spirals, Binders & Composition Books. San Antonio, TX: Dinah-Might Adventures, LP. Zike, D. (2012). Envelope Graphic Organizers. San Antonio, TX: Dinah-Might Adventures, LP.

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