From Classical to Contemporary

From Classical to Contemporary

Filming Space and Time HUM 3280: Narrative Film Fall 2014 Dr. Perdigao September 22-24, 2014 Editing D. W. Griffith and crosscutting or parallel editingtwo or more strands of simultaneous action (Corrigan and White 136) Sergei Eisensteinmontage (French word for editing), breaks and contrasts between images joined by a cut (137) Hollywood montage: thematically linked sequences, sequences showing passage of time by quick sets or cuts, dissolves, wipes, superimpositions to bridge spatial and temporal discontinuities Continuity editing and new realisms (1929-1950) to modern disjunctive

editing (1959-1989) (139) Fracturing illusion of realism, extension of Soviet montage editing, resulting in temporal disjunctions, or disconnections, creating ruptures in the story, condensing or expanding time, confusing relationship between past, present, and future (139) Jump cuts as techniquegaps in the action 1990s-present, nonlinear digital editing Breaking Shots Cut as break between two shots, border between two pieces of film (Corrigan and White 141) Fade-ins, fade-outs, dissolvesshow breaks between sequences or larger

segments of a film, more definite spatial or temporal break (142) Verisimilitudehaving appearance of truth, accepting world of fiction; in cinema, consistent spatial and temporal patterns (144) Continuity editinguses cuts and transitions to tell stories efficiently, establish verisimilitude (144) Invisible editingcontinuity Establishing shot long shot establishes setting; reestablishing shot (144) Insert brief shot, often close-up, other characters dont see (146) Shots, Shots, Shots, Shots, Shots, Shots

(everybody!) Intertitles printed words inserted between the images, used in silent films (219) Diegesis world story describes: characters, places, events (Corrigan and White 186) Nondiegetic insert introduces an object or view from outside the films world or makes a comparison that transcends the characters perspectives (ringing phone, text) (146) Shot/reverse shot or shot/countershot (148) reverses angle of shot, showing conversation Eyeline match continuous offscreen space (148), can be used in shot/reverse-shot sequences

Shots, Shots, Shots, Shots, Shots, Shots (everybody!) Point-of-view shots (150) Reaction shot characters response to something viewers have been shown (151) Flashback, flashforward (151) Duration of shots determine pace of editing (153) Long takes Sequencing Sequence shotentire scene in one take (Corrigan and White 153)

Narrative segmentationdividing film into large narrative units (159) Typing 1950s and 1960sexperiments in film, Soviet films Move away from linear progression to disjunction Reflexivity self-consciousness in story Character coherencepsychological, historical, other expectations that see people as fundamentally consistent and unique (Corrigan and White 226) Values, actions, behaviors

Inconsistent, contradictory, divided characters subvert one or more patterns of coherence (226) Character depthdimensions (227) Character groupingsocial arrangements of characters in relation to each other (227) Collective charactergroups action and personality (227) Typing Character typessingle trait or multiple traits (228) damsel in distress, psychotic killer (228) Figurative typesexaggerated or reduced, unrealistic, emblematic (228)

Characterization and Plotting Archetypereflection of spiritual or abstract state or process (Corrigan and White 228) Stereotype Character developmentpattern through which characters move from one mental, physical, or social state to another (230) Patterns of external and internal changes, progressive and regressive developments (230) Linear chronologyselected events and actions proceed one after another through a forward movement in time (234) Deadline structureplot leading to specific moment (236) Parallel plotssimultaneity or connection between plots, intersection (236) Retrospective plot: The Godfather, Part II (237) Narrative durationlength of time an event or action is presented in plot (237) Narrative frequency how often those plot elements are repeatedly shown (ex: focus on bomb mechanism in Die Hard: With a Vengeance) (237) Location, Location, Location Historical location; ideological location; psychological location; symbolic space (Corrigan and White 254)

Psychological locationcharacters state of mind and place inhabited (Lost in Translation); symbolic spacespace transformed through spiritual or abstract means (Cast Away) (254-5) Narrative framecontext or person positioned outside the story to bracket the films narrative and help define terms and meaning; might be voiceover (257) Omniscient narration third-person narration (257) Restricted narration limited third-person, focusing on one or two characters (258) Reflexive narration calls attention to narrative point of view (258)

Unreliable narration (Fight Club) (258) Multiple narrations different perspectives for single story (258) The Classics Classical film narrative: centers on one or more central characters that propel plot with cause-and-effect logic; develops with linear chronologies directed at certain goals; employs omniscient or restricted narration that suggests realism (Corrigan and White 263) Classical Hollywood narrative visible and dominant form since 1910s Classical European narrativemade in Europe since 1910 and flourishing in 1930s and 1940s

Postclassical narrativein decades after WWII that strain and maintain classical formula for coherent characters and plots (263) Alternative film narrative: deviates from or challenges linearity of narrative; undermines centrality of character; questions objective realism of classical narration (264) Ive got a theory Formalism: films form or structure as focus; cinematography, close readings (Corrigan and White 462-463) Authorship and Genre theories Auteur theory: individual imprint, directors influence (464-469); Orson Welles and Citizen Kane; Hitchcocks cameos; Griffiths intertitles with initials Idea of film as collective and collaborative production versus work of single individual Identity politicsidentity of director Genre Intertextuality: dependence upon other texts for meaning (471) Film noirdark lighting style, dark sensibility, 1940s and 1950s (471) Melodrama (472) Westerns and gangster films (472) Womans picture (472)

Ive got a theory Soviet film theorymontage: 1920s (Corrigan and White 477) Spectators experience through organization of fragments, making meaning through juxtaposition or chain of shots (477) Classical Film Theories: Formalism and Realism (478-480) WWIItwo periods for filmmaking and film theory Film journals, influence from 1910-present Ive got a theory Semiotics1970s, Ferdinand de Saussure

Sign, signifier, signified; signifier as spoken or written word, picture, gesture; signified as mental concept (Corrigan and White 486) Comparison between film and language (487) Structuralism Narratology as study of narrative; plot and story Marxism (488-489) History and society in terms of class relations (488)

Ideologysystematic set of beliefs (489) Poststructuralism: Psychoanalysis, Apparatus Theory, Spectatorship Ive got a theory Soviet Montage Theoryafter the 1917 Russian Revolution, defining artistic practice that could participate in revolutionary change (405) Classical Film Theories: formalism and realism (406) Formalism, foundations of film theory in early twentieth century Film as new formal language breaking from language of theatre (407) Realism: imitation of reality

Experiences in everyday life Realism in post-World War II period Postwar period and development of film theory Film journals in 1950s Auteur theoryimprint of individual on the film; focus on filmmaker (410) Ive got a theory Genre theory, focus on genres like westerns, crime films, film noir

Contemporary film theory1970s and beyond Specialized discipline Semiotics and structuralismideas about language, film language (413) A visual language, conjuring meaning Influence of linguistic theory Syuzhet (plot) and fabula (story) Syuzhet as the way events are arranged in the actual tale or film and fabula as the chronologically ordered sequence of events as we rationally

reconstruct it (417) Model of detective storysyuzhet follows detectives progress; fabula as circumstances leading to the crime (417) Ive got a theory Modernismfractured human subjectivity, foregrounding of style, openended narrative Structuralism + subjectivity=poststructuralism; questions truths and hierarchies, tying up of loose ends; questions closure (Corrigan and White 419) PsychoanalysisJacques Lacan and the imaginary (419) Mirror stage

Apparatus Theorycinema as ideological mechanism, Platos allegory of the cave; values built into technology in historical moment (420) Spectatorshiphow subjects interact with films (420) Screen theory and gaze theoryChristian Metz Feminist Film TheoryLaura Mulveys Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema (1975); ideas of the Other subjected to the gaze (421) Ive got a theory Lesbian and Gay Film Studiesquestioning heteronormative ways of viewing film, filmmaking (Corrigan and White 422) Cultural Studiestext analyzed in relation to processes of production and consumption (423) Reception Theoryviewers responses to film; works meaning derived from reception (423) (The Rocky Horror Picture Show!) Ethnographic Reception Studiesethnography; dominant, negotiated, and oppositional reading (424) Historical Reception Studieshistorical context; New Historicism;

extratextual details (424) Star Studiesauteur theory, focus on individual, types (424-425) Race and Representation (426-428) Phenomenologyperception involving mutuality of viewer and viewed; Lacan and Metz (428) Layers: Its like Inception! Postmodernism Pastiche; questions about critiquing the world through art, division of high and low culture, genius and independent identity of the artist (Corrigan and White 429) Jean Baudrillards simulacrum (432) Breakdown of singular identity, recognition of otherness (432)

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