FY03 IR&D Program Update - Columbia University

FY03 IR&D Program Update - Columbia University

Fast-handoff Mechanisms for Wireless Internet Presenter - Ashutosh Dutta 04/12/2005 IRT Group Meeting [email protected] Outline Motivation Handoff Delay during Wireless Internet Roaming Related Work Multi-Interface/Inter-Technology Handoff Experimental Results MIP-based, SIP-based (binding) Proposed Ways to Optimize the handoff Multi-interface mobility management Proactive Handover SIP-based fast-handoff Proxy-based handoff for multicast stream IRT Talkl - 2 Motivation It is desirable to limit the jitter, delay and packet loss for VoIP and Streaming traffic 150 ms end-to-end delay for interactive traffic such as VoIP, 3% packet loss is allowed Delay due to handoff takes place at several layers Layer 2 (handoff between AP), Layer 3 (IP address acquisition, configuration) and Media Redirection Rapid handoff will contribute to overall delay and packet loss Thus it is essential to reduce the handoff delay introduced at different layers We propose several mechanisms to reduce the handoff-delay and packet loss IRT Talkl - 3 Mobile Wireless Internet: A Scenario Domain1 Internet Domain2 PSTN gateway WAN 802.11a/b/g WAN UMTS/ CDMA IPv6 Network

802.11 a/b/g Bluetooth LAN LAN PAN Roaming User PSTN Hotspot CH UMTS/CDMA Network Ad Hoc Network IRT Talkl - 4 SIP-centric Wireless Internet Roaming Public AAA Home Domain Visited Domain Public SIP Server AAA Visited Registrar VR AAA QoS QoS SLA/SA SIP Server SIP Server DHCP/PPP N1 D ERC BS DHCP/PPP DNS PANA BS Home HR Registrar PANA Interne t DNS N2 N1 Corresponding Host IPch ERC AP ERC N2 N1- Network 1 (802.11) AP N2- Network 2 ( CDMA/GPRS) ERC - Edge Router and Controller AP B SIP A enabled MN C IRT Talkl - 5 Trajectory of a Packet

Source Transmission + Handoff Receiver PCM sample T1 Total E-E delay = T i Total Packet Loss = PN P1 Compressed packet T1 = Encoding Delay T2 = Packetization Delay T3 = Transmission Delay T4 = Handoff Delay T5 = Jitter buffer delay T6 = De-Packetization delay T7 = Decoding Delay VoIP Packet T2 Time P1 T3 P1 T4 T5 = 0 P1 T5 Lost Packets PN T5 No handoff P1 T6 P1 PN T7

T6 P1 PN Handoff T7 VoIP PN Packet (Application) IRT Talkl - 6 Handoff Latency Dual mode MN DHCP server PPP AP1 AP2 Next VPN Access GW Router HA/SIP Server AAA Server CN 3 Binds to AP1 2 Media 1 Layer 2 Security 1 Layer 2 Association Router Advertisement 1- L2 Hand-over Latency Delay DHCP/PPP 2

2 Delay due to IP Address Acquisition and Configuration, authentication, authorization Stateless Auto-configuration DAD/ARP VPN AAA 3 3 Binding update and Media Redirection delay IGMP/RTCP Binding Update New Media IRT Talkl - 7 Sample Delays (L3, L2) L3 Delay Method (Linux) DHCP ARP w/o Time 2 4-5 300 150 ms 400 s ms DRCP DHCP (v6) SA 160 ms SF 500 ms Auto IP Static PPP

FA COA Proactive IP 7-8 s 12 s 4-5 s 100 ms Under study L2 Delay H/W - OS L2 Handoff AiroNet +Linux 200 300 ms Orinoco+Linux 100 160 ms DLink +Linux 400 600 ms Centrino + Linux (Passive) 300 ms Orinoco +Windows 250 ms Hostap (Managed) 14 ms IRT Talkl - 8 Mobility Optimization - Related Work Cellular IP, HAWAII - Micro Mobility MIP-Regional Registration, Mobile-IP low latency, IDMP HMIPv6, FMIPv6 (IPv6) Yokota et al - Link Layer Assisted handoff Shin et al, Velayos et al - Layer 2 delay reduction Gwon et al, - Tunneling between FAs, Enhanced Forwarding PAR

DHCP Rapid-Commit, Optimized DAD - Faster IP address acquisition DFA, MOM (Multicast) IRT Talkl - 9 Possible Handover Scenario Handover between 802.11 and 802.3 networks Handover between 802.3 and 802.16 networks Handover between 802.11 and 802.16 networks Handover between 802.11 and 802.11 networks, across ESSs. Handover between 802.3 and Cellular networks Handover between 802.11 and Cellular networks Handover between 802.16 and Cellular networks IRT Talkl - 10 Single Radio Interface Roaming Scenario Provider A Subnet A1(or ESS A1) IEEE 802.11 LAN Subnet A2(or ESS A2) IEEE 802.11LAN Intra-domain Inter-subnet MIH Subnet B1 (or ESS B1) Provider B IEEE 802.11LAN Inter-domain Inter-subnet MIH IRT Talkl - 11 Handoff with Single Interface (802.11-802.11) Example Network 1 (802.11) MN Assign IP0 to Physical I/F AP1 R1 AP2 Network 2 (802.11)

Network 3 R2 CN DHCP Data L2 handover - MN DHCP Packet loss period Assign PANA/AAA IP1 to Physical SIP Re-invite with IP1 I/F Data IRT Talkl - 12 Multiple Radio Interface Roaming Scenario Cellular Network (CDMA/GPRS) IEEE 802.11LAN IEEE 802.11 LAN WLAN: Activated Cellular: deactivated The mobile detects Cellular starts the connection, WLAN: deactivated Mobile Detects 802.11 may disconnect cellular IRT Talkl - 13 Effect of handoff delay on audio (Non-Optimized) 802.11 CDMA

Handoff 19 s 802.11 Figure 3. Multiple Interface Case (802.11b CDMA1XRTT) MIP as mobility 802.11 CDMA Handoff 17 s 802.11 Figure 3. Multiple Interface Case (802.11b CDMA1XRTT) SIP as mobility 802.11 Handoff 802.11 4s Figure 1. Single Interface Case (802.11b 802.11b) SIP as mobility IRT Talkl - 14 SIP-based subnet and domain Mobility handoff (Experimental Results) Handoff timing with more granularity CH Old IP address IP1 RTP to IP1 Voice 20 msec time interval CH MH X RTP to IP1 MH RTP1 Time Sec Handoff

RTP1 59.521 - 00.478 (L2+DRCP+PANA) X RTP2 Re-Invite address IP2 OK Pr VER DISCO P C R D DRCP OFFE R New IP Pr 00.701 00.759 - 00.938 ACK Pr RTP2 RTP to IP2 CK DRCP A Fig 1. Handoff Factors for SIP-based mobility DRCP 2 Subnet Handoff 79 ms Domain Handoff

81 ms PANA SIP 3 3 2 ms 228 ms 45 ms 289 ms 00.949 PANA Table 1. subnet/domain handoff Experimental values Operation 00.652 E Re-INVIT Media RTP Pr (De-REG+REG) (01.049, 01.052) OK 1490 ms 1656 ms 00.960 01.031 01.151 ACK Pr Pr = 220 ms

01.37 RTP1 01.52 IRT Talkl - 15 Inter-domain Secured Mobility Domain1 (Home network) Domain2 (Foreign network) Pre-shared key for [email protected] Temp. key for [email protected] DIAMETER Server (AAA Foreign) (AAA Home) SIP Proxy SIP Proxy DIAMETER Client PANA Agent w/Firewall DRCP IPSec AP 2 DIAMETER Client PANA Agent w/Firewall DRCP IPSec Temp. key for [email protected] MN 3 1 Register 302 Moved CH AP RTP Key 4 INVITE

Mobile Station 5 Re-INVITE INVITE DIAMETER Server PANA Client [email protected] MN MN RTP Key IRT Talkl - 16 Effect of multilayer security on handoff - SIP-MIP SIP-DRCP-PANA-AAA-IPSEC Media Interruption 1.31 sec MH CH MIP-DRCP-PANA-AAA-IPSEC Media Interruption ~ 7 s CH RTP1 RTP1 RTP1 RTP1 Time Sec MH RTP2 51.756 (domain1) 52.066 52.146 TIME (Sec) 23.806 RTP2 DRCP OFFER DRCP ACK

DRCP OFFER ACK 24.046 24.086 52.176 52.226 52.266 (domain2) 24.216 24.246 52.276 52.346 IKE ISAKMP 28.256 29.356 52.666 Pr ACK Pr 24.176 24.196 PANA-AAA PANA-AAA OK 24.156 Mobile IP RTP1 52.796 Pr 52.906 RTP1 (IPIP) 29.376 31.186 RTP1 53.066 Fig 3a. MIP-based secured Inter-domain mobility handoff timing Fig 3b. MIP-based secured Inter-domain mobility

handoff timing IRT Talkl - 17 Need for fast-handoff (An example) CN Control signal New data Home Domain Transient data Home SIP Proxy Public SIP Proxy - Round trip time from London to Sydney is 540 ms, 28 hops -London Berkley Is 136 ms, 22 hops Public SIP Proxy Transient Data Public SIP Proxy Internet OK ACK -In Re RTP Media after Re-Invite te vi IP0 Subnet MN S0 Move Visited Domain Visited Proxy/Outbound SIP server Register 1 IP1 Translator MN Subnet S1

Translator IP2 Subnet MN S2 Move IRT Talkl - 18 Fast-handoff mechanisms Key Design Principles: Limit the signaling due to Intra-domain Mobility Capture the transient packets in-flight and redirects to the mobile Obtain IP address proactively and send binding update in the previous network Make-before-break in multi-interface case Communicates proactively with CH before the handoff takes place by doing pre-authentication Have a proxy joins the multicast stream on behalf of the impending client Methods currently experimented SIP Registrar and Mobility Proxy-based Proactive secured handoff (MPA) Proxy-based handoff for Multicast Streaming Other SIP-based fast-handoff methods for comparison Outbound SIP proxy server and mobility proxy B2BUA and midcom Multicast Agent IRT Talkl - 19 SIP fast-handoff mechanism using mobility proxy Outbound Server CH MH IP1 First move Visited SIP Registrar Mobility Proxy Subnet 1 Mobility Proxy Subnet 2 Mobility Proxy Subnet 3 Delay Box

Media (1) Re-INVITE (2) REGISTER 2 IP2 (New Address) SIP-CGI (3) Transient Traffic during the move IP2 Second move Forward traffic (IP1:p1 ---> IP2:p1) New traffic Re-INVITE IP3 (New Address) Re-REGISTER Transient Traffic during the move SIP-CGI Forward traffic (IP2:p1 ---> IP3:p1) IRT Talkl - 20 Heterogeneous Mobility (Host-based) MIP HA Corresponding Host Data, Video Stream, Voice Home Network Router/MIP FA R Testbed Core Network Visited Network A Ether Bridge

Router/MIP FA R Visited Network B BT AP 802.11 AP Laptop or PDA Internet MIMM Cellular Network (cdma2000, GPRS) 802.11 AP MIMM Visited Network C MIMM MIMM provides innovative techniques and algorithms to support Fast handoff among heterogeneous radio systems Fast and resource-efficient path quality comparison to allow terminal to pick the interface that best fits is applications QoS needs at the lowest power consumption IRT Talkl - 21 Multi-Interface Mobility Management - Results MN CH Packet Sequence Number INV IT E w ith new IP address 200 OK A CK (500 packets/grid) MI MM dec ide sw itc hing interfac e 802.11b RT P /U DP session destined to the new Interfac e

Time (10 seconds/grid) (a) handoff signaling sequence in SIP mobility MN 3G Cellular HA MI MM dec ide sw itc hing interfac e RRQ w ith life time = 0 for old addr Figure 1: SIP-based Mobility with MIMM CH RT P /U DP session destined to Home address RRP w ith life time = 0 for old addr RRQ w ith life time > 0 for new addr RRP w ith life time > 0 for new addr RT P /UDP session forw arded to the new Interfac e (b) handoff signaling sequence in Mobile IP HA stops forw arding pac ket in this duration Movement type Cellular802.11b 802.11b Cellular Handoff Trials #1 #2 #1 #2 INVITE -> OK 0.12 s 0.12 s 1.32 s

6.64 s INVITE -> 1st Packet 0.39 s 0.41 s 2.54 s 7.18 s Re-transmission None None Yes Yes Figure 2: Timing for SIP-based Mobility IRT Talkl - 22 SIP Mobility (without make-before-break) 802.11-CDMA MN eth0 22.733 CN RTP 59961 RTP 59962 eth0 22.772 eth0 22.812 Delay 18 s PPP Setup ~16 s ppp0 38.453 ppp0 38.965 ppp0 39.759 ppp0 39.878 ppp0 40.769 Jitter In cellular network ppp0 40.869 ppp0 40.969 ppp0 41.719 ppp0 41.729

RTP 59963 WLAN is gone PPP0 is coming up Packets sent at 40 ms interval CN MN WLAN eth0 CDMA PPP0 Re-INVITE Re-INVITE (Re-trans) OK ACK RTP 60402 RTP 60403 RTP 60404 RTP 60405 Packets sent at 40 ms interval RTP 60406 IRT Talkl - 23 SIP Mobility (MIMM) Make-before-break (802.11 CDMA) CN MN (eth0) 16.202 (ppp0) 16.240 RTP (28790) Re_INVITE (IP1) RTP (28791) (eth0) 16.242 (ppp0) 16.750 Re-INVITE (Re-trans) IP1 Jitter observed in Cellular Network -Several Re-INVITE retransmission in CDMA network -Packets are received in eth0 during SIP Re-INVITE sequence - No packets are lost during the handoff RTP (28792) (eth0) 16.285 (eth0) 16.322 (eth0) 16.362 (ppp0) 17.761 (eth0) (eth0)

(ppp0) 19.639 (eth0) Handoff delay (ppp0) 19.758 (eth0) (eth0) 20.122 (ppp0) 20.549 (ppp0) (ppp0) 20.669 20.769 20.869 MN: WLAN - Eth0 CDMA - PPP0 CN RTP (28793) RTP (28794) Re_invite (Re-trans)- IP1 RTP RTP OK RTP ACK RTP RTP 28888 RTP 28889 RTP 28890 IRT Talkl - 24 Mobility with VPN Internal (protected) External (unprotected) CN i-HA Internal Home Network MN i-MIP tunnel Internal Visited Network MN VPN

GW x-HA VPN tunnel External Network 1 External Network N x-MIP tunnel DMZ MN MN Based on its current location, MN dynamically establishes/changes/terminates tunnels without changing current standards of IPsec VPN or Mobile IP. Triple encapsulation tunnel is constructed by: i-HA (Internal Home Agent): Forwards IP packets to MNs current internal location VPN GW: Protects (encrypts and authenticates) IP packets transmitted in external networks x-HA (External Home Agent): Forwards IP packets to MNs current external location IRT Talkl - 25 Demonstration Scenario Step 1: MN (at its home network over WLAN) and CN start an application session, then MN starts moving DMZ VPN GW CN x-HA External Network (Cellular) i-HA Internal Home Network (WLAN) External (unprotected) Internal (protected) MN MN

MN IRT Talkl - 26 Demonstration Scenario Step 2: MN starts preparing alternate path by establishing x-MIP and VPN tunnel over the cellular link, while keeping communication via the home network over WLAN DMZ VPN GW x-HA VPN tunnel CN x-MIP tunnel External Network (Cellular) i-HA Internal Home Network (WLAN) External (unprotected) Internal (protected) MN MN MN IRT Talkl - 27 Demonstration Scenario Step 3: MN stops using its home WLAN, starts using cellular and establishes i-MIP tunnel, then continues communication with CN DMZ VPN GW x-HA VPN tunnel x-MIP tunnel i-MIP tunnel CN External Network (Cellular) i-HA

Internal Home Network (WLAN) External (unprotected) Internal (protected) MN MN MN IRT Talkl - 28 Mobile-IP with VPN Experimental Testbed Earth Link DSL External Hotspot Internet MN External Cellular Verizon CDMA 1XRTT Enterprise Firewall 65 VPN GW 66 100 (99) Internal Home (SSID=ITSUMO home) i(demo.tari.toshiba.com) HA MN AP 2 Linux R 67 98 DMZ Network Internal Visited

SIP 3 DNS X-HA TIA = 111-120 HoA = 210-215 1 CH HoA = 70-75 4 .66 - .94 Monitor DHCP IRT Talkl - 29 Step-by-step protocol flow CN MN i-HA VPN-GW x-HA RTP i-MIP Reply SNR = S1 MN CN i-MIP Request i-HA VPN-GW RTP x-MIP Request ESP + x-MIP

Make Before Break CDMA PPP Connection setup ESP SNR=S2 i-MIP Request i-MIP Reply ESP x-MIP Reply Data on 802.11 x-HA ESP + x-MIP ISAKMP + x-MIP RTP ISAKMP UDP + i-MIP ISAKMP ESP ISAKMP + x-MIP Data Over CDMA (tripple Tunneled) ESP + x-MIP PPP setup over CDMA at SNR (S1) Make-before-break CN

MN i-HA VPN-GW scenario at SNR = S2 x-HA i-MIP Request RTP MN Back home Data On 802.11 i-MIP Reply VPN Tunnel Teardown ISAKMP + x-MIP ISAKMP Out-of-order Transient packets ISAKMP ISAKMP + x-MIP 1xrtt Disconnection Mobile coming back home IRT Talkl - 30 Non-make-before-break situation RTP Sequence RTP Sequence Non-Make-before-break 35000 34500 34000

33500 33000 32500 32000 31500 Non-make-before-break 802.11 (enterprise) Cellular 802.11 (enterprise) 0 50 100 Packet Loss Due to Non-make-before-break 150 200 250 300 Time in Seconds IRT Talkl - 31 SUM (make-before-break) 802.11-Cellular Secured Handoff 2600 2500 2400 2300 2200 2100 2000 1900 1800 RTP sequence during handoff RTP Packet Sequence 802.11(enterprise) Cellular Out-of-order-packet

802.11(enterprise) 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Time in Seconds IRT Talkl - 32 Home-cellular-Hotspot Home-Cellular-Hotspot handoff RTP Sequence R T P S eq u en ce 5500 Hotspot 802.11 4500 3500 2500 Cellular External 1500 Home 802.11 500 0 100 200 300 400 Time in Seconds IRT Talkl - 33 Handoff and delay with multiple Interfaces (MIPMobile IP with VPN VPN) Operation

Timing PPP setup 10 sec X-MIP 300 ms VPN Tunnel setup 6 Sec 0.00100000 I-MIP 400 ms 0.00010000 I-MIP (Home) 200 ms IPSEC 60 ms DHCP 3 Sec TransmissionDelay 5 ms 802.11 2.5 s cellular Packet Transmission Delay for Voice Traffic Transmission Delay 63620 62280 60940 56933 52624 49317 45586 43252 41820

40480 39140 37800 0.10000000 36460 Transmission Delay in (Log Scale) Packet Numbers 1.00000000 0.01000000 0.00001000 802.11 802.11 0.00000100 Cellular 0.00000010 (a) Packet Transmission Delay Inter-Packet Delay Variation betw een CH and MH (Voice) Packet Num bers In ter-P a c ket D e la y v a ria tion b e twe en C H a n d M H (Vid e o) 0.1 000 00 62900 61876 60852 58279 54172 51671 48867 46019 44012 42604

41580 40556 39532 38508 37484 1.0000 2 41 9 7 24166 24135 24104 2 40 7 3 24042 24011 2 39 8 0 23949 23918 23887 23856 23825 23794 23763 23732 23697 2 36 6 6 2 36 3 5 2 3 6 04 23573 23542 23511 23480

23449 1.0 000 00 36460 802.11b Inter-Packet Delay difference (log scale) C e llular P a ck et N u mb er 23418 In te r -P a c k e t D e la y V a ria t io n (L o g S c a le ) 1 0.0 0000 0 802.1 1b Delay Variatio n 10.0000 Inter D iff 0.0 100 00 0.0 010 00 (c) Inter-packet departure and arrival delay variation for VBR (Voice) 802.11 802.11 0.1000 0.0100 0.0010 (c) Inter-packet departure and arrival delay variation for CBR (Voice) IRT Talkl - 34 MOBIKE-flow (802.11-Cellular-802.11) CN MN VPN GW RTP

VPN traffic in 802.11 Tunnel (RTP) VPN traffic in cellular Mobike in cellular Visited Network 1 (802.11) Mobike in 802.11 IP0 address of 802.11 interface IP1 address of cellular interface IP0 is primary address MOBIKE 44.948 (PPP is up) Visited Network 2 (Cellular) 45.232 (Last packet on 802.11) MOBIKE MOBIKE 45.522 IP1 is primary address Make-before-break No packet loss 46.312 (First packet on Cellular) 46.432 46.469 28:44.091 51.894 (802,11 is primary interface) MOBIKE 51.915 28:52.019 Visited Network Packet (802.11) Loss (Break-before-make) IP0 is primary address 1 MN moves from 802.11 (hotspot) to Cellular to 802.11 (hotspot) IRT Talkl - 35

MOBIKE-flow (Cellular-802.11-Cellular) CN VPN GW RTP Tunnel (RTP) VPN traffic in 802.11 MN VPN traffic in cellular Mobike in cellular Visited Network 1 (Cellular) Mobike in 802.11 IP0 address of 802.11 interface IP1 address of cellular interface IP0 is primary address MOBIKE 13.342 ( 802.11 is up) Visited Network 2 (802.11) MOBIKE 13.377 13.554 (First packet on 802.11) IP1 is primary address 13.667 (Last packet on cellular) MOBIKE MOBIKE No packet loss Out-of-order-packet (make-before-break) 43.103 (Last packet on 802.11) 47.881 51.519 51.977 IP0 is primary address Visited Network 1 Packet (Cellular) Loss (No-Break-before-make)

MN moves from Cellular to 802.11 (hotspot) to Cellular IRT Talkl - 36 MPA-assisted Seamless Handoff (a scenario) MN-CA key AR MN-CA key Network 1 AA AA AP2 AP1 CA CA CTN AR CTN Network 2 Mobile Current Network CTN Candidate Target Networks TN Target Network TN MN-CA key AR AP0 AA CA Network 3 CN AP3 Information Service (e.g.,802.21) mechanism can help locate the neighboring network elements in the candidate target networks (CTN) IRT Talkl - 37 Functional Components of MPA 1) Pre-authentication/authorization Used for establishing a security association (SA) between

the mobile and a network to which the mobile may move L2 pre-authentication can also be enabled based on the established SA 2) Pre-configuration Used for establishing contexts specific to the network to which the mobile may move (e.g., nCoA) The SA created in (1) are used to perform secured configuration procedure 3) Secured Proactive Handover Used for sending/receiving IP packets based on the preauthorized contexts by using the contexts of the current network IRT Talkl - 38 Network GPRS W-CDMA GSM cdma2000 L2info AP-ID 802.16 Location L3info 802.11-SSID longitude Latitude IPv6 802.11 Civic-addr L2Mobility L2QoS IPv4 Ciphering L3QoS 802.11r Cost 802.11e

standard Auth IPsec L2PreAuth 802.11u KMP PANA L3Mobility UAM 802.21 IKEv1 IKEv2 KMP BSSID PAA_addr 11i4w Cipher AKM EP_addr CT AES-CCMP Router_addr CARD MIPv4 L3Preauth channel ISP_code HA_addr ISP_name FA_addr ISP_tariff Psk

DHCP_addr 802.1x Domain_name subnet Sip_server VPN_server WEP phy Data_rates Nsp_code TKIP Nsp_name Nsp_tariff Roaming List Expected Result Detect new AP in different subnet L3 L3 handoff auth/authz starts L2 handoff starts starts Conventional Method Time L3 handoff L2 auth/authz, completes starts L2 handoff L3 auth/authz completes completes Detect new AP Pre-auth/ Pre-authz starts L3 handoff starts L2 handoff starts

MPA Time Pre-auth/ L3 handoff Pre-authz completes Completes (L2 SAs can be , completed here.) L2 handoff completes Critical period (communication interruption can occur) IRT Talkl - 40 Pre-Authentication SIP mobility is just an example mobility protocol. MPA works for any mobility management protocol CN DATA[CN<->A(X)] AA Subnet X CA AR Subnet Y pre-authentication MN CN: Correspondent Node MN: Mobile Node AA: Authentication Agent CA: Configuration Agent AR: Access Router IRT Talkl - 41 Pre-authorization CN DATA[CN<->A(X)] MN-CA key AA CA Subnet X AR

Subnet Y pre-authorization MN IP address: A(X) Current subnet: X Status: Pre-authentication done Action: pre-authorization CN: Correspondent Node MN: Mobile Node AA: Authentication Agent CA: Configuration Agent AR: Access Router IRT Talkl - 42 Proactive Handover: Initial Phase CN DATA[CN<->A(X)] MN-AR key AA CA Subnet X AR Subnet Y Secure Proactive Handover tunnel establishment procedure MN IP address: A(X), A(Y) Current subnet: X Status: Pre-authorization done Action: PH Initiation CN: Correspondent Node MN: Mobile Node AA: Authentication Agent CA: Configuration Agent AR: Access Router IRT Talkl - 43 Proactive Handover: Tunneling Phase CN DATA[CN<->A(X)] MN-AR key AA CA

Subnet X AR Re-Invite[CN<->A(Y)] Subnet Y SIP Re-Invite over proactive hanodver tunnel [AR<->A(X)] MN IP address: A(X), A(Y) Current subnet: X Status: PH tunnel established Action: SIP Re-Invite CN: Correspondent Node MN: Mobile Node AA: Authentication Agent CA: Configuration Agent AR: Access Router IRT Talkl - 44 Proactive Handover: Completion Phase DATA [CN<->A(Y)] over proactive hanover tunnel [AR<->A(X)] AA Subnet X CA CN AR Subnet Y Proactive handover stop procedure MN IP address: A(X), A(Y) Current subnet: X Status: SIP Re-Invite done Action: PH Completion L2 handoff procedure CN: Correspondent Node MN: Mobile Node AA: Authentication Agent CA: Configuration Agent AR: Access Router

IRT Talkl - 45 MPA Communication Flow Candidate Target Network MN nPoA oPoA CA AA AR CN Existing session using oCoA 1. Found CTN Pre-authentication [Authentication Protocol] MN-CA Key 2. High probability to switch to the CTN MN-AR Key Pre-configuration [Configuration Protocol to get nCoA] Pre-configuration [tunnel management protocol to establish PHT 3. Determined to switch to The CTN 4. BU completion and Ready to switch 5. Switching Secure Proactive Update Phase Binding Update + data Transmission over PHT using nCoA Secure proactive handover pre-switching phase [tunnel management protocol to delete PHT] Post Switching Phase: Reassignment of nCoA to its physical Interface New Data using nCoA IRT Talkl - 46 MPA Optimization Issues Network Discovery Discover the neighboring network elements (e.g., Routers, APs, Authentication Agents) 802.21 (Information Service), 802.11u, WIEN SG, CARD, DNS/SLP Proactive IP Address Acquisition Proactive Duplicate IP address Detection Proactive Address Resolution

Proactive Tunnel Management Proactive Mobility Binding Update Bootstrap Link-layer Security in CTN using L3 Pre-authentication IRT Talkl - 47 Protocol Set for the MPA demonstration Pre-authentication protocol PANA Pre-configuration protocol PANA, DHCP Relay Proactive handover tunneling protocol IP-in-IP Proactive handover tunnel management protocol PANA Mobility management protocol SIP Mobility Link-layer security None IRT Talkl - 48 Experimental Network in the Lab. Network 2 Network 1 R1 eth0 DHCP Server AP1(Channel 6) ITSUMO network eth2 eth0 AR

AR AA PANA Agent R2 10.10.10/24 Network 3 10.10.30/24 Relay/ Client Proxy IP2 DHCPCA Server SIP with VIC/RAT Application MN AP2(Channel 9) MN CN Move IP0: IP1: AP1, AP2: Access Point R1, R2: Access Router MN: Mobile Node CN: Correspondent Node IP0, IP1: IP address of MN IRT Talkl - 49 Protocol flow for MPA Network 2 (802.11) Network 1 (802.11) MN AP1 Assign DHCP IP0 to

Physical I/F R1 AP2 R2 DHCP Network 3 CN Data Assign IP1 to Tunnel I/F PANA (Pre-Authentication and pre-configuration to obtain IP1) Address acquisition Using DHCP relay - Tunnel (IP0-IP1) SIP Re-invite with IP1 Data Deletes Tunnel with PANA Update L2 handover Packet loss period MN Assign Data IP1 to Physical I/F IRT Talkl - 50 Signal RTP Data MPA Experimental Flow (proactive handoff) Lost RTP Data Tunneled packet

MN IP0 MN Network 1 DHCP PANA (ACK) DHCP(IP1) RTP RTP SIP Re_INVITE (IP1) 8.913 OK (tunneled) BU No Packets lost During BU 9.030 Handoff Decision Tunnel deleted RTP (39835) RTP (40335) PANA Trigger to delete tunnel PANA Response 19.291 19.298 19.315 19.379 L2 handoff 19.393 + local L3 19.394 Configuration 19.408 RTP packets Spaced ~16 ms ACK Tunneled Data

19.283 19.285 OK RTP 9.136 9.267 Network 3 Network 2 RTP PANA Tunnel Setup CN DHCP R2 RTP (40336) RTP (40337) RTP (40340) IWCONFIG (IOCTL) 19.395 X JOIN (Auth/Assoc, ifconfig, route,) JOIN (ACK) Lost packet (non-tunnel) First packet in new network (non-tunneled) RTP (40341) RTP (40342) 19.411 IP1 IRT Talkl - 51 Optimized handoff delay (Single IF/ Multiple I/F) 802.11 4s CDMA 802.11

4s CDMA Figure 3: Multi-Interface with MIP (802.11-CDMA) 802.11 CDMA Figure 4: Multi-Interface with SIP (802.11-CDMA) Figure 5: Proactive with SIP mobility (Single Interface 802.11-802.11) IRT Talkl - 52 Fast-handoff for Multicast Stream (General Scenario) Source Home Network MN Multicast Tree Internet HA w Ne ult M st ica ee Tr DHCP DHCP MR1 MR2 Visited Network 2 MN Visited Network 1 MN Handover IRT Talkl - 53 Multicast Mobility with multiple servers Sources p1 S1 S2

p2 Objective: Reduce Join/Leave Latency during Mobiles movement M-Proxy Backbone S1 m1 S0 IGMP Fast-handoff for the mobiles Local Server m1 m2 Local Server RTSP Local Program Ad server (a1,a2) RTSP Ad server (a3) BS0 (P1,a1) (P2,a2) RTCP m2 BS1 Local Program BS2 P2,a3 P2,a2 IRT Talkl - 54 IGMP Join/Leave latency vs. Proxy-based handoff in 802.11 environment Layer 2 Handoff for Multicast

5 Protocols 4 RTP DRCP Router Query 3 2 Q.Response 1 Protocols Instance at Mobile IGMP-802.11 (Subnet) Handoff 0 0 200 400 600 5 4 RTP 3 Subnet handoff Router Query 2 Q.Response 1 0 800 Ping-Pong JOIN Latency 0 200 Ping-Pong

400 600 JOIN Latency 800 1000 TIme in Seconds Time in Seconds There is no JOIN Latency but Leave latency inherent JOIN Latency is about 60 seconds LEAVE latency during 802.11subnet handoff Proxy assisted subnet handoff 5 Leave latency 5 4 4 RTP 3 DRCP Router Query 2 Q.Response 1 Protocols Protocols at mobile DRCP Subnet handoff RTP DRCP 3

Router Query 2 Ping Mobile 1 0 0 200 400 600 Time in Seconds JOIN latency is almost zero Leave latency is still an issue 800 0 120 180 240 300 360 420 480 540 600 Timr in Seconds Maximum leave latency is about 3 min. IRT Talkl - 55 Conclusions Rapid Handoff in an IP-based cellular network has adverse effect for interactive and streaming traffic Introduces delay, jitter and packet loss Experimental results were presented involving handoff between homogeneous and heterogeneous access networks 802.11-802.11, 802.11 CDMA Both SIP-based and MIP-based mobility were used for experiment Optimized Handoff Schemes were presented with some results for

each scheme Optimized handoff schemes seem to be more prominent for Proactive Handover When the distance between CH and MH is much larger Proxy-based handoff for multicast stream Future Work Comparison with other fast-handoff mechanisms Network Selection/Discovery Mechanism Buffering Scheme for MPA assisted handoff IRT Talkl - 56

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