Gateway - PC\|MAC

Gateway - PC\|MAC

GATEWAY Biology Content Review Characteristics of Living Things Reproduce Grow Develop Need food/require energy Made of cells

Respond to their environment Adapt to their environment

Cells and Heredity Cell Theory All living things are made of cells. The cell is the basic unit of structure and function. All cells come from preexisting cells.

Organelles and Cell Parts Cell Membrane (Plasma membrane) Surrounds cell Selective barrier Controls what substances enter and exit the cell

Organelles and Cell Parts Cytoplasm Jelly-like material that fills the cell Molecular soup holds all organelles Organelles and Cell Parts

Ribosomes: Site of protein synthesis (where proteins are made) Organelles and Cell Parts Golgi Apparatus

Prepares proteins that will leave the animal cell or be placed in the plasma membrane Post Office of the cell Organelles and Cell Parts

Mitochondria Powerhouse of the cell Site of cellular respiration which produces ATP from sugars (glucose) Organelles and Cell Parts

Lysosome Digest macromolecules Single celled organismseating, digest food Digest/recycle old organelles; stomach of the cell Immune system Organelles and Cell Parts

Centrosome Produces microtubules during cell division. Microtubules control the movement of chromosomes. Organelles and Cell Parts

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Transport of materials such as proteins Ribosomes attached Production of proteins occurs on ribosomes Organelles and Cell Parts

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Transport of materials such as proteins No ribosomes attached Production of lipids Organelles and Cell Parts Nucleus

Stores/protects DNA Brain of the cell Organelles and Cell Parts Nuclear Envelope (Membrane) Membrane that surrounds the nucleus

Organelles and Cell Parts Nucleolus Found in the nucleus Produces ribosomal RNA (rRNA) which forms ribosomes Organelles and Cell Parts

DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid Contains genes/hereditary information Determines structure of proteins Organelles and Cell Parts

Chloroplast Site of photosynthesis, which stores the suns energy in sugars (glucose) Found in plants Organelles and Cell Parts

Vacuole Storage Waste, nutrients, water, ions Organelles and Cell Parts Cell Wall Supports and protects plant cells, bacteria,

fungi, some protists Allows cell to exist in hypotonic environment Organelles and Cell Parts Cilia and Flagella Movement (locomotion)

Organelles and Cell Parts Microfilaments and Microtubules Structural components, skeleton of the cell Cellular Classification Unicellular

Organisms Single celled Bacteria, archaea, some protists (euglena, paramecium, amoeba) Multicellular

Organisms More than one cell Plants, animals, fungi, some protists Cellular Classification Eukaryote Nucleus present Single or multi-celled

Membrane bound organelles Plants, Animals, Fungi, Protists Prokaryote No nucleus No membrane bound organelles

Single celled Primitive Bacteria, Archaea Cellular Classification Plant Eukaryotic Cell wall (cellulose) Vacuole,

chloroplast No lysosome, no centrioles Animal Eukaryotic Lysosomes, centrioles No cell wall, no

vacuole, no chloroplast Cells Eukaryote Fungi

Plant Animal Prokaryote Protists Bacteria

Archaea Practice Which of the kingdoms contain only multicellular organisms? Plant, Animal Which of the kingdoms contain only single-celled

organisms? Bacteria, Archaea Which of the kingdoms contain both single-celled and multicellular organisms? Fungi, Protist Archaea Practice: Decide whether each of the following is

unicellular or multicellular, prokaryotic or eukaryotic; and state the kingdom to which belongs. Human M/E/Animal Cat M/E/Animal Bacteria U/P/Bacteria

Oak Tree M/E/Plant Goldfish M/E/Animal Practice: Decide whether each of the following is unicellular or multicellular, prokaryotic or eukaryotic; and state the kingdom to which belongs.

Euglena U/E/Protist Mushroom M/E/Fungi Fly M/E/Animal

Snake M/E/Animal Paramecium U/E/Protist Practice: Decide whether each of the following is unicellular or multicellular, prokaryotic or eukaryotic; and state the kingdom to which belongs.

Daffodil M/E/Plant Cyanobacteria U/E/Protist Virus None

Kelp M/E/Protist Homeostasis Maintaining a constant and stable environment inside of an organism Examples Breathe in oxygen Breathe out carbon dioxide

Eat Food Energy Building Blocks

Eliminate Waste Maintain Temperature Blood pH Blood sugar How does each of the following organs, systems, or responses function in maintaining homeostasis?

Kidneys Cardiovascular System Shivering Sweating Sunning Buffers in our blood

Roots on a plant Leaves on a plant Digestive System Mitochondria Lysosome Stomach Cellular Transport Materials Transported Materials

into a cell: Transported out of a Nutrients cell: Water Sugar (carbohydrates) Ions Amino Acids

Fats Oxygen Waste Carbon Dioxide Proteins Sugar Hormones

Methods of Transport Across a Cell Membrane Active Transport - Requires Energy (ATP) Uses Transport Protein

Methods of Transport Across a Cell Membrane Passive Transport Does not require energy Particles move from high concentration to low concentration. Works to reach equilibrium Methods of Transport Across a

Cell Membrane Passive Transport Diffusion Movement of particles through the membrane down a concentration gradient

Methods of Transport Across a Cell Membrane Passive Transport Osmosis Movement of water through a semipermeable membrane from an area of high water concentration to an area of low water concentration. Methods of Transport Across a Cell Membrane

Passive Transport Facilitated Diffusion Movement of particles through a cell membrane by means of a transport protein. Down the concentration gradient Does NOT require energy. Methods of Transport Across a Cell Membrane

Osmosis Movement of water Water makes up about 70% of the cell and is required for transport of food, nutrients, and waste throughout the body. Water moves from a hypotonic solution to a hypertonic solution. Methods of Transport Across a

Cell Membrane Osmosis These are relative terms used to compare two solutions: Hypotonic Solution: Lower solute concentration Hypertonic Solution: Greater solute concentration Isotonic Solution: Equal solute concentration

Methods of Transport Across a Cell Membrane Methods of Transport Across a Cell Membrane Osmosis Animal Cells need to be surrounded by an isotonic solution

Animal cells in a hypotonic solution gain water and will swell and burst Animal cells in a hypertonic solution lose water and will shrivel Methods of Transport Across a Cell Membrane Osmosis

Methods of Transport Across a Cell Membrane Osmosis Plant Cells need to be surrounded by a hypotonic solution. Plant cells in an isotonic solution become flaccid/ limp Plant cells in a hypertonic solution lose water undergo plasmolysis

Methods of Transport Across a Cell Membrane Methods of Transport Across a Cell Membrane Endocytosis Cell eating A cell takes in macromolecules or other

substances when regions of the plasma membrane surround the substance, pinch off, and form a vesicle within the cell. Methods of Transport Across a Cell Membrane Exocytosis A cell secretes macromolecules waste, hormones, neurotransmitters, etc.

Methods of Transport Across a Cell Membrane- PRACTICE 1. An animal cell is placed in a hypertonic solution; what will happen to the cell? Lose water, shrivel 2. A plant cell contains a solute concentration of 0.5M; in what direction will water move if the cell is

placed in a 0.2M solution? Into the cell 3. What term best describes the process by which a drop of food coloring over time spreads out uniformly through a beaker of water? diffusion Methods of Transport Across a

Cell Membrane- PRACTICE 4. In the diagram, what will be the direction of net water movement across the semipermeable membrane? To the left 7.5M NaCl 5.7M NaCl Cell Division

Mitosis Growth and Repair Somatic (body) cells Daughter cells: Two produced Diploid (2n) Identical to the parent Cell Division

Interphase Prophase Metaphase Anaphase

Telophase Steps of Mitosis Prophase Chromatin coiled to form discrete chromosomes Nucleoli disappear Form mitotic spindle, lengthen microtubules

Nuclear membrane breaks down Microtubules attach to chromosomes Steps of Mitosis Metaphase Chromosomes line up at middle of cell Steps of Mitosis Anaphase

Microtubules shorten Chromatids separate, are pulled toward opposite sides of the cell Steps of Mitosis Telophase Daughter nuclei form at either side Chromatin becomes less tightly coiled Cytokinesis (division of cytoplasm) occurs during

telophase. Meiosis Sexual reproduction (Why is meiosis required for sexual reproduction?) Form gametes (sperm and egg) Daughter cells Four produced (two nuclear divisions) Haploid (n, cuts the number of chromosomes in

half) Different from parent and unique from each other Meiosis Steps: Prophase I Metaphase I Anaphase I

Telophase I Prophase II Metaphase II Anaphase II Telophase II Meiosis Comparing Mitosis and Meiosis:

Comparing Mitosis and Meiosis: Energy/ Matter Transformations Macromolecules Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, and Nucleic acids are all organic macromolecules. Organic Molecules are composed primarily of carbon and are the building blocks of all

living organisms. Macromolecules Macromolecules Macromolecules Macromolecules

Carbohydrates Glucose monosaccharide (simple sugar) Required to produce ATP through cellular respiration Glycogen Polymer of glucose Short term energy storage for animals Stored in the liver and muscles

Starch Polymer of glucose Short term energy storage for plants (example: potato) Stored in the roots Cellulose Polymer of glucose Structural Cell walls in plants

DISACCHARIDE 2 monosaccharides linked together by condensation reaction (H & OH water) Ex. Sucrose, fructose, lactose (milk sugar) Polysaccharide polymer of simple sugars Ex. Starch, cellulose (fiber), glycogen (energy storage in animals)

Lipids Energy storage Fatsanimals Oilsplants Padding and Insulation, cell membranes 2/3 brain is fat

GLYCEROL + 3 FATTY ACIDS FORM (lipid) + 3 water molecules Condensation reaction (3 water molecules produced) Glycerol has alcohol group OH

Fatty acid has long carbon chain + COOH (acid) Fat Nucleic Acids DNA Structure- double helix Nucleic Acids

DNA Replication Occurs before Mitosis and Meiosis Semi-conservative Double Helix unwinds, and each strand separates Each strand used as template to construct new

complementary strand Nucleic Acids Nucleic Acids Proteins DNA assembled throughof

process of Determines structure proteins transcription Each group of and threetranslation

bases codes for a single amino acid Nucleic Acids Translation Transcription Nucleic Acids RNA

Single stranded Ribonucleic Acid (contains ribose rather than deoxyribose). Four basesAdenine, Uracil, Guanine, Cytosine (Uracil replaces Thymine) Three types: rRNAforms the ribosomes tRNAtransports amino acids from cytoplasm to ribosomes

mRNAcarries information for protein structure from DNA to a ribosome Proteins Composed of amino acids Uses Enzymes Muscle Hair Nails

Microtubules Proteins Chains of Amino Acids Condensation (Hydrolysis) Reaction: Amine = NH2 Acid = COOH Proteins

Protein Synthesis: Transcription: Copies information from DNA to mRNA mRNA then transported from DNA to a ribosome EukaryotesmRNA leaves nucleus to find ribosome Prokaryotesno nucleus; transcription and translation can occur simultaneously

mRNA attaches to ribosome Proteins Protein Synthesis: Translation: Information in mRNA used to construct specific sequence of amino acids Information is translated from language of

nucleotides to the language of amino acids tRNA carries amino acids to ribosomes where they are linked together. Proteins Practice: The substances in your body that are needed in order to grow and maintain life come from the

nutrients in food. There are 6 classes of nutrients in food- carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, water, vitamins, and minerals. Of these, carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are the major sources of energy for the body. Analyze and evaluate the sample daily diet of a 16 year old male. Be sure to include the following in your evaluation: Total calories ingested Percent of calories contributed by each of the nutrients

Compliance with the RDI standards set by the USDA. Carbohydrates supply 4 Cal/gram. Recommend 60% Calories from carbohydrates. Provide most of the bodys energy. Sources: Grains, fruits, vegetables. Proteins supply 4 Cal/g. Recommend 30% Calories from protein. (2-3 servings per day) Protein is not stored by body. Sources: meat, poultry, fish, eggs, dried beans, nuts.

Fats supply 9 Cal/g. Recommend 10 - 30% Calories from fat. Less from saturated fat. Stored energy in the body. Sources: oils (unsaturated), fat & lard (saturated). Respiration and Photosynthesis Respiration: Process of using energy from sugar (glucose) to produce ATP C6H12O6 +6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + 38ATP

Occurs in mitochondria Occurs in both animals and plants ATP provides energy to do work in the cell When ATP is used, it is converted to ADP; respiration then uses energy in sugars to convert ADP back to ATP by adding phosphate. a

Respiration and Photosynthesis Photosynthesis Process of using energy from the sun to produce sugars (glucose) 6CO2 + 6H2O + Light Energy C6H12O6 +6O2 Occurs in chloroplast of plants and some algae

Respiration and Photosynthesis How are photosynthesis and respiration related? The products of respiration are the reactants of photosynthesis; the products of photosynthesis are the reactants of respiration. Respiration and Photosynthesis

Where and how are excess sugars stored in plants? Excess sugars are stored as starch in the roots. Starch is a polymer of glucose. Respiration and Photosynthesis Where and how are excess sugars stored in animals? Excess sugars are stored as glycogen in the liver of animals. Glycogen is a polymer of

glucose. Respiration and Photosynthesis Construct a food chain that traces the flow of energy from the sun, to your lunch, through you, and to the muscles that make your arm move. Sun grass cow hamburger person In a person, hamburger is broken down/

digested; sugars move to mitochondria in muscle, yield ATP through cellular respiration. ATP makes muscles move. Genetics/ DNA Heredity and Mendelian Genetics Genetics: The study of heredity (the passing of traits from parents to offspring) Gregor Mendel: The father of genetics.

DNA: Consists of many genes Gene: Stretch of DNA that codes for a given trait. Allele: Alternate version of a gene Genetics/ DNA Dominant and Recessive Traits Dominant Allele Gene that is fully expressed.

Masks/ speaks louder than a recessive allele. Recessive Allele Masked/not expressed if dominant allele is present. Only expressed if dominant allele is absent. Genetics/ DNA Genotype

The genetic makeup of an organism Homozygous: having two of the same allele Heterozygous: having two different alleles. Homozygous Dominant: having two dominant alleles Homozygous Recessive: having two recessive alleles Heterozygous: having one of each allele

Genetics/ DNA Phenotype The physical and physiological traits of an organism How the genes are expressed What you would see in a photograph Example: In peas, Y is a dominant allele that instructs

for yellow seeds; y is a recessive allele that produces green seeds. Given the following genotypes, fill in the term that best describes each, and then indicate what the phenotype of the organism will be. DNA/ Genetics A Punnett Square can be used to predict the genotypes and phenotypes of the offspring

produced by a given genetic cross. Generations Parental (P): The organisms involved in the initial cross First Filial (F1): The offspring of the Parental Generation Second Filial (F2): The offspring of the First Filial Generation Example: A chicken and a rooster mate. The chicken has

white feathers and the rooster has brown feathers. Brown is dominant, and white is recessive. Assuming the rooster is heterozygous, predict the frequency of each genotype and phenotype in their offspring. What is the cellular process that determines which alleles an offspring will receive from their parents? Meiosis

Practice: 1. A plant that is homozygous dominant for height is crossed with a plant that is homozygous recessive. (T = tall; t = short). Use a Punnett Square to predict the genotypic and phenotypic ratios of the F1 generation. Practice:

2. Using question number 1, what would be the genotypic and phenotypic ratios of a cross of two F1 individuals? DNA/ Genetics Determining What is the Sex probability of having a boy? girl? 50%/50%

A Human male: XY Human female: XX Which parent determines the sex of a human offspring? Father DNA/ Genetics

Sex Males linked have traits one X chromosome, so if one defective, they do not have a backup is Carried on the X chromosome

copy as do females. Example: hemophilia, color blindness. Disorders occur more often in males than females. Why? DNA/ Genetics Mutation A change in the base sequence of DNA. A change in DNA can lead to a change in the

protein coded for by that gene. A change in the protein structure can lead to certain disorders, for example, sickle cell anemia. The 6 Kingdoms Bacteria and Archaea Single Celled, prokaryote Cell wall

Live in damp places or in water Asexual reproductionbinary fission Decomposers (breaks down organic material) Nitrogen fixation (rhizobium) Parasites (tuberculosis, cholera, strep-throat) Symbiotic relationships (humans) The 6 Kingdoms Complete the chart comparing bacteria and viruses:

The 6 Kingdoms Protista Eukaryotes (has a nucleus) Single Celled

Euglena Diatoms Dinoflagellates

Ciliates Kelp Flagellates Seaweed Sacrodina (amoeba) Sporozoa (malaria) Multi-celled

The 6 Kingdoms Plants Multicellular, eukaryotic Examples: The 6 Kingdoms Animals Multicelled, eukaryotic

Examples: The 6 Kingdoms Fungi Multicelled or single celled; eukaryotic Examples: The 6 Kingdoms

Plants Photosynthetic Autotrophs How are plant cells different from animal cells? Plant cells have a cell wall and vacuole; Plant

cells do not have centrioles and lysosomes. The 6 Kingdoms Major parts of a plant: Roots absorb water and nutrients from the soil. Store excess sugars (in the form of starch)

Stem connects roots to the rest of the plant Leaves site of photosynthesis The 6 Kingdoms Plants Transport in a plant Xylem: transports water and nutrients

from the roots to the rest of the plant Phloem: transports products of photosynthesis to the rest of the plant. What environmental factors might affect a plant? Water supply, light, pH, acid rain, pollutants Ecology

Biome A major biological community that occurs over a large area of land. Determined primarily by precipitation Affected by elevation, latitude, soil type, geographical features. Terrestrial Biomes

Terrestrial Biomes Tropical Rain Forest Rain: 200-450 cm (80-180 in) per year (A lot of rain) Rich in number of species (many different types of organisms)

Central America, South America, Africa, Asia Examples of Animals and Plants:

tree frog, monkeys, birds, green canopy Terrestrial Biomes Desert Rain: fewer than 25 cm (10 in) per year (Very little rain)

Sparse vegetation May be warm or cold Examples of Animals and Plants: Cactus, snakes, lizards,

nocturnal animals Terrestrial Biomes Savanna Examples of Animals and Plants: giraffes, zebras, Rain: 90-150 cm grasses

(35-60 in) per year Prevalent in Africa. Dry grassland

Widely spaced trees; animals active during rainy season Terrestrial Biomes Temperate Deciduous trees shed leaves Forest in fall

Deciduous Warm cold winter Rain:summer, 75-250 cm (30-100 in) Mammals Mild Climate, plentiful

rain birds migrate hibernate in winter, Eastern US, Southeastern Canada, Europe, Asia Examples of Animals and Plants: Bears, Deer, Oak Trees Terrestrial Biomes Examples of Animals and Plants: Grazing animals Temperate

(Bison), grasses, field mice Grasslands Halfway between equator and poles Interior of North America, Eurasia,

South America Fertile soil, used for agriculture Terrestrial Biomes Coniferous Forest

Cone bearing trees: pine, spruce, fir, hemlock Pacific Northwest (temperate rain forests) Northern Coniferous Forest (Taiga) Cold and wet

Winters long and cold; precipitation in summer Coniferous forests (spruce and fir) Large mammals: elk, moose, deer, wolves, bears, lynx, wolverines Terrestrial Biomes

Tundra Between taiga and poles 20% of Earths surface Rain: less than 25 cm (10 in) Permafrost 1m deep (3ft) Examples of animals: foxes, lemmings, owls, caribou Alpine Tundra Found at high latitudes

High winds and cold temperatures Aquatic Biomes Freshwater Communities Standing bodies of water

Moving bodies of water streams, rivers Wetlands

lakes, ponds Swamp, marsh, bog ~2% of Earths surface

Plants, fishes, arthropods, mollusks, microscopic organisms Aquatic Biomes Marine Communities (salt water) 75% Earths surface covered by ocean Average depth 3km (1.9mi) Mostly dark, cold Photosynthetic organisms mostly towards surface

Heterotrophic organisms throughout Fish, plankton (algae, diatoms, bacteria). Flow of Energy Through an Ecosystem In order to live, organisms must obtain energy and nutrients Heterotrophs

Obtain energy and nutrients from the food they eat Autotrophs Obtain energy from the sun Obtain nutrients from the soil. Flow of Energy Through an Ecosystem Producer

Uses energy from the sun and carbon from the environment to make its own food. Bottom of the food chain Why are producers necessary in any ecosystem? Make energy from the sun available/usable for heterotrophs. Flow of Energy Through an Ecosystem

Consumer Obtains energy through eating other organisms Herbivore: eats only plants Carnivore: eats only animals Omnivore: eats both plants and animals Primary consumer: eats producers Secondary consumer: eats the consumers that

eat the producers Flow of Energy Through an Ecosystem Consumer Means of obtaining nutrition Predation Ecological interaction in which one organism (predator) feeds on another living organism(prey).

Predator may or may not kill the prey. Scavenging An animal ingests dead plants, animals, or both. Vultures, termites, beetles Flow of Energy Through an Ecosystem Consumer Means of obtaining nutrition Decomposer (Saprophytes)

Breakdown (absorb nutrients from) non-living Organic materialcorpses, plants, waste of living organismsand convert them to inorganic forms. Bacteria, fungi Why are decomposers necessary in any ecosystem? Recycle nutrients. Flow of Energy Through an

Ecosystem Food Chain Linear pathway of energy transport through an ecosystem algaekrillcodsealkiller whalebacteria Producers always come first in the food chain. Decomposers always come last in the food chain; they will break down dead organisms and allow nutrients to be recycled.

Arrows indicate the direction in which energy flows through the ecosystem. Bacteria/Decomposers Flow of Energy Through an Ecosystem Food Web A network of interconnected food chains in

an ecosystem Producers are at the beginning. Decomposers are at the end. Arrows indicate the direction in which energy flows through the ecosystem. Practice: 1. Draw a food chain with at least five organisms. Label all organisms as being a

producer, a consumer, or a decomposer. Make sure arrows are drawn to show how the energy is transferred. Bacteria / decomposers Sun Practice:

2. How does a food chain prove the Law of Conservation of Matter and Energy? The energy is not disappearing but is being transferred from one organism to another. Symbiosis Living Together Ecological interaction in which two or more species live together in a close, long-term

association. Mutualism Symbiosis Both partners benefit

Ants and aphids Aphids supply sugars to ants; ants protect aphids from insect predators Symbiosis

Commensalism One species benefits, the other is neither harmed nor helped Birds and bison Birds feed on insects flushed out of grass by grazing bison Barnacles and whales Symbiosis

Parasitism One species (the parasite) benefits; the other (the host) is harmed. One organism feeds on and usually lives on or in another. Bacterial infection of animals Fungus infects trees

Malaria Practice Cycles of Matter Carbon Cycle Carbon is the key ingredient in all living organisms Processes involved: - biological (ex. photosynthesis)

geochemical (ex. release of CO2 by volcanoes) -human activity (ex. burning of fossil fuels) Cycles of Matter Nitrogen Cycle All organisms require nitrogen to build proteins Forms of nitrogen: N2 in atmosphere; NH3, NO3-, NO2- in wastes; nitrate from fertilizers

Some bacteria convert N2 into NH3 during nitrogen fixation. Some bacteria convert nitrates into N2 during denitrification. Cycles of Matter Water Cycle All organisms require water to survive.

Processes: evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, seepage, runoff Important Ecological Terms Abiotic factors Nonliving chemical or physical factors in the environment. Examples: Air, soil, water, wind

Biotic factors Living organisms in the environment. Examples: Plants, animals, fungi, microorganisms Important Ecological Terms Ecosystem All living and nonliving things in a given area

Community All living organisms that inhabit a given area. A group of populations Population A group of individuals belonging to the same species that live together in the same area Important Ecological Terms

Competition Two or more organisms require the same resource that is in limited supply. Food, shelter, light, water, mates The strongest organism will win the competition and will be more likely to live and pass its genes on to the next generation (natural selection).

Important Ecological Terms Habitat Place or environment in which populations live Niche Role of a species in an ecosystem Relationships, activities, resources used

niche Important Ecological Terms Succession The series of predictable changes that occurs in a community over time Primary succession occurs on a surface where no soil exists. Ex. bare rock, areas covered by volcanic ash

Secondary succession occurs in an area where a disturbances changes an existing community without destroying the soil. Ex. plowed land, area burned by wildfire Succession: Adaptation and Natural Selection

Natural Selection Idea first stated by Charles Darwin Survival of the fittest Organisms that are best adapted to their environment are more likely to live long enough to produce offspring and pass their traits on to the next generation. In terms of evolution and natural selection, the number one goal

of any organism is to pass its genes on to the next generation through the production of offspring. Adaptation and Natural Selection Selective Breeding Organisms with desired traits are chosen to mate so that their offspring also possess desired traits.

Examples: Pedigree dogs and cats Adaptation and Natural Selection Adaptation Characteristic of an organism that helps it to better survive in a given environment. Types of adaptation: Structural: characteristics of an organisms anatomy. (wings on a bird)

Physiological: characteristics relating to internal body processes. (antibiotic resistance) Behavioral: how an organism acts and responds to its environment (bird migration) Adaptation and Natural Selection List three additional examples of adaptations and state the type of adaptation:

Webbed feet of a duck (structural) Ink from an squid (physiological/behavioral) Gills on a fish (structural/physiological) Adaptation and Natural Selection Evolution Change in groups of

organisms over a long period of time Adaptation and Natural Selection Evolution Evidence for evolutionary changes Fossils (The deeper the fossil, the older it is) Comparative anatomy and the study of homologous structures (Ex. human arm, dolphin fin, bat wing, dog

foreleg) Comparative Biochemistry (The fewer the differences in DNA, the closer the organisms are related) Comparative Embryology (Ex. all vertebrates have gill slits, tail, and notochord in early development) Direct evidence (Ex. bacteria can quickly become resistant to antibiotics) Practice: Classify the following adaptations as

behavioral, structural, or physiological. Discuss the reason(s) for your choices. Bees build a hivebehavioral Young ducklings follow their motherbehavioral A woodpeckers beak is pointed and sharp structural Flat shape of a leafstructural

- Human Systems and Basic Life Functions Human Systems and Basic Life Functions Human Systems and Basic Life

Functions Biology Exercises Answer the following questions in paragraph form. Your answers will not necessarily be essays; they are short practice questions and may require one to three paragraphs. Answer on a separate piece of paper; feel free to give

me a copy of your work so I can look over it and give you feedback. Biology Exercises 1. Compare and contrast a plant cell and an animal cell. Animal vs. Plant Cell

Biology Exercises 2. Compare and contrast prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Biology Exercises 3. A plant is watered with highly concentrated salt water. Even though the plant is given plenty of water it soon begins to wilt. Explain why the plant is

wilting. Biology Exercises 4. A plant and an insect are placed in an air-tight container; fresh oxygen is not allowed to enter the container. After about a week the plant died. A day later the insect died. If the insect had a sufficient amount of food and water,

explain why the insect died. Biology Exercises 5. In terms of the carbon cycle, explain how a carbon atom of one of your cells could have at one time been in George Washingtons body. Draw a food chain or food web to illustrate your point.

Biology Exercises 6. Explain how a molecule of water in your body could, at one time, have been located in a tree in your backyard. Use scientific terminology to explain the path the water molecule followed from the tree to your body. Biology Exercises

7. An animal cell is only capable of cellular respiration; a plant cell is capable of both cellular respiration and photosynthesis. Why do both organisms require cellular respiration? Why does only the plant cell require photosynthesis? The End

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