GDP per capita, PPP (current international $)

GDP per capita, PPP (current international $)

US-China Barometer 2017 Long U.S.-China Institute University of California, Irvine The Long Institute annually publishes the US-China Barometer, a measure of perhaps the most important bilateral relationship in the world. The Barometer provides a multidimensional representation of the relationship based on a compilation of the most pertinent data. Topics include the traditional trade and commercial statistics, but also indicators of the quality of life and opportunities in both countries. The huge energy consumption and military expenditures in both countries have global implications, and are represented as well. Public opinion and the numerous city-to-city relationships are summarized. Political opinions are eschewed. In almost all cases we include at least ten years of history to provide a context for the interpretation of the most recent changes and events. Indeed, we would hope that objective metrics would influence political decisions rather than vice-versa. We have endeavored to collect and present the data objectively by using mostly third-party sources such as the World Bank. Where both American and Chinese sources exist we have often discovered substantial discrepancies a good example is in Foreign Direct Investment. In the future we will collaborate with our colleagues in China toward determining the best ways to manage such discrepancies. We have also considered developing a summary statistic combining the various measures as a sort of index of the relationship that might be compared over the years. However, this effort is thwarted in two ways: First, the mathematical problem is not trivial combining the numbers is a bit like comparing apples, oranges, and puppies. Second, important details are lost in a summary statistic. So we deliver the Barometer as a 27-slide power-point presentation with interpretive notes (see below each slide) and the data sets imbedded (right click then choose edit data). Users and viewers are most welcome to adapt the presentation to their own purposes. Just dont change the data. We expect and seek your criticism so that we might improve the Barometer in future years. Feel free to comment on our choice of metrics and our own biases that we have had trouble seeing. Please send your comments to John L. Graham at [email protected] and/or Ben Leffel at [email protected] John L. Graham Ben Leffel Differences The presentation is divided into two sections. The first presents important differences (and similarities) across the two countries. The hope is that the differences will subside with the

continued economic integration of the U.S. and China. We also look forward to improvements in both countries on all dimensions. GDP per capita, PPP (current international $) 60000 50000 40000 30000 United States China 20000 10000 0 85 988 991 994 997 000 003 006 009 012 015 9 1 1 1 1 1 2

2 2 2 2 2 Source: World Bank (WDI) Life expectancy at birth (years) 90 80 70 60 50 United States China Hong Kong SAR 40 30 20 10 0 85 987 989 991 993 995 997 999 001 003 005 007 009 011 013

9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Source: World Bank (WDI) Homicide rate (per 100,000) 9 8 7 6 5 United States China 4 3 2 1 0 95 9 1 97 9

1 99 9 1 01 0 2 03 0 2 05 0 2 07 0 2 09 0

2 Source: UNDOC.org 11 0 2 13 0 2 Military Spending (billions, 2011 US$) 800 700 600 500 400 United States China 300 200

100 0 Source: sipri.org Ratio of female to male tertiary enrollment 160 140 120 100 80 United States 60 China 40 20 0 85 987 989 991 993 995 997 999 001 003 005 007 009 011 013 9

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Source: World Bank (WDI) Internet users (%) 80 70 60 50 40 United States China 30 20 10 0 Source: World Bank (WDI) Mobile Phones (%) 300 250

200 United States China Hong Kong 150 100 50 0 00 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013 014 015 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Source: World Bank Energy use (kg of oil equivalent per capita) 9000 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 United States

China 3000 2000 1000 0 Source: World Bank (WDI) CO2 emissions (metric ton per capita) 25 20 15 United States China 10 5 0 Source: World Bank (WDI) Corruption Perception Index (scores) 90

80 70 60 50 United States China Hong Kong SAR 40 30 20 10 0 85 995 997 999 001 003 005 007 009 011 013 015 9 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2

2 2 2 2 Source: transparency.org Piracy rates for computer software (% unlicensed use) 120 100 80 United States China Hong Kong SAR 60 40 20 0 94 996 998 000 002 004 006 008 010 012 014 9 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Source: bsa.org/globalstudy Unemployment rates (%) 12 10 8 6 United States China 4 2 0 85 987 989 991 993 995 997 999 001 003 005 007 009 011 013 015 9

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Source: World Bank (WDI) Interaction The second group of slides presents measures of the increasing interaction of the two countries. In almost respects we see a strengthening of the bi-lateral relationship. Trade in goods ($ billion) 600 500 400 300 U.S. exports to China Chinese exports to U.S. 200 100 0 85 988 991 994 997 000 003 006 009 012 015 9 1

1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 Source: census.gov Total U.S.-China trade in goods and U.S. trade deficit in goods ($ billion) 800 600 400 200 Total trade U.S. trade deficit 0 85 987 989 991 993 995 997 999 001 003 005 007 009 011 013 015

9 -2001 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 -400 -600 Source: census.gov Historical dollar/yuan exchange rate 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 86 988 990 992 994 996 998 000 002 004 006 008 010 012 014 016 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Source: databank.worldbank.org Chinese holdings of U.S. treasuries ($ billion) 1400 1200 1000 800 Chinese holdings 600 400 200 0 00 0 2 02 0 2 04 0 2

06 0 2 08 0 2 10 0 2 12 0 2 Source: treasury.gov 14 0 2 16

0 2 Foreign direct investment ($ billion) 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 85 987 989 991 993 995 997 999 001 003 005 007 009 011 013 015 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 U.S. in China China to U.S. Travel between countries (thousands of passengers) 2500 2000

1500 From United States From China 1000 500 0 95 997 999 001 003 005 007 009 011 013 015 9 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Source: tinet.ita.doc.gov Educational exchange students 350000

300000 250000 200000 From United States From China 150000 100000 50000 0 Source: iie.org Chinese language training in higher education in U.S. (number of students) 70000 60000 50000 40000 U.S. students 30000 20000 10000

0 83 9 1 90 9 1 95 9 1 98 9 1 02 0 2 06 0 2

Source: mla.org 09 0 2 13 0 2 U.S. patents granted to invention teams that include both American and Chinese citizens 2500 2000 1500 U.S. patents granted 1000 500 0 85 988 991 994 997 000 003 006 009 012 015 9

1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 Source: patft.uspto.gov WTO complaints filed 3.5 3 2.5 2 by U.S. by China 1.5 1 0.5

0 02 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013 014 015 016 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Source: wto.org Public opinion: favorable vs. unfavorable Chinese Views of U.S. 60 60 50 50 40 30 20 10 0 Per cent (%) of respondents

Per cent (%) of respondents U.S. Views of China 40 30 20 10 0 05 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013 014 015 016 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Source: http://www.pewglobal.org/ U.S.-China sister city relationships Chinese and American cities have established more than 150 formalized bilateral ties through sister city relationships, facilitating commercial, educational, scientific and other types of cooperation for mutual benefit. The above shows the hundreds of U.S.-China sister city connections that have been established since the late 1970s. Source: Ben Leffel, Dept. of Sociology

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