Gender and Governance

Gender and Governance

13 17 February 2017 Gender and Governance Moving from conventions to governance Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford Ibixinsight.com ICPS Gender Equity Planning Gender and Governance

Gender and Governance Accountability, democracy, transparency and voice Moving past the rhetoric to accountable gendered systems Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford Ibixinsight.com ICPS Gender Equity Planning

What is Governance? Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford Ibixinsight.com ICPS Gender Equity Planning Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford Ibixinsight.com ICPS Gender Equity Planning Just before we move ON!

'gender' does not mean 'women' but 'gender relations', or the relations between men and women. Gender analysis examines how power is distributed between women and men, how it operates, who can use it and for what purposes. It's best understood as a system which shapes everything around us what we think, what we know, whose knowledge is privileged, and which values are supported Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford Ibixinsight.com

ICPS Gender Equity Planning Your experience of mattering! Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford Ibixinsight.com ICPS Gender Equity Planning What is accountability? Why does it matter?

Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford Ibixinsight.com ICPS Gender Equity Planning Paris Declaration on Aid / Development effectiveness Second High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness (2005) it was recognised that aid could - and should - be producing better impacts. The Paris Declaration now bases development efforts on first-hand

experience of what works and does not work with aid. It is formulated around five central pillars: Ownership, Alignment, Harmonisation, Managing for Results and Mutual Accountability. Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford Ibixinsight.com ICPS Gender Equity Planning OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

Formed December 1960 20 signatory countries initially 18 European Countries plus Canada and the USA Now 36 countries working with another 70 non member economies. mandate to promote economic growth, prosperity, and sustainable development. Mostly highly developed economies Runs a black list on corruption and tax havens Seeks to promote conditions for neo-liberal free market based development with UN principles informing development agendas. Based in Paris.

Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford Ibixinsight.com The five pillars Paris Declaration Ownership: Alignment:

Harmonisation: ICPS Gender Equity Planning 1. Developing countries set their own strategies for poverty reduction, improve their institutions and tackle corruption. 2. systems. Donor countries align behind these objectives and use local

3. Donor countries coordinate, simplify procedures and share information to avoid duplication. . Results: 4 Developing countries and donors shift focus to development results and results get measured.

Mutual accountability: Donors and partners are accountable for 5. development results. Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford Ibixinsight.com All Africa Bank Presentations Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford Ibixinsight.com ICPS Gender Equity Planning

OECD questions to address How can women and men have equal access to and control over the resources and services in their environment? How can we ensure that womens health problems are recognised and treated in the village clinic? How can women control the number of children they have and gain access to family planning? How do we get more girls to go to school and tailor education to their needs? How can women and girls claim their right to equal access to resources and basic services?

And how can we ensure that these services address gender issues? Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford Ibixinsight.com ICPS Gender Equity Planning Challenge for Philanthropy and Development initiatives from external sources new aid modalities, with their emphasis

on budget support and focus on the macro level, difficult for donors to determine whether their funds actually going to poverty alleviation and gender equality. Donors today have less direct contact with the poor than they used to. Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford Ibixinsight.com ICPS Gender Equity Planning Good Governance DFID

Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford Ibixinsight.com ICPS Gender Equity Planning DFID model for Good Governance Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford IbixInsight.com ICPS Gender Equity Planning World Development Bank and

accountability World Banks World Development Report (WDR) 2004 looking for routes for poverty reduction - successful services for poor people emerge from institutional relationships in which the actors are accountable to each other. World Bank. 2003. World Development Report 2004 : Making Services Work for Poor People. World Bank. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/5986 License: CC BY 3.0 IGO. Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford Ibixinsight.com

ICPS Gender Equity Planning Political Economy Analysis PEA Classically worked with as: The role of gender in society: such as gender equality in formal and customary law, women's property and business ownership. Women in positions of power and influence: how many women sit in parliament, how many are

business or civil society leaders. The representation and influence of women's groups: whether lobbying groups exist for women's rights, and how much success they have. Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford IbixInsight.com ICPS Gender Equity Planning Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford IbixInsight.com ICPS Gender Equity

Planning Capability and Accountability Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford IbixInsight.com ICPS Gender Equity Planning The Accountable Circle Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford IbixInsight.com ICPS Gender Equity

Planning The Accountability triangle World Bank 2004 Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford Ibixinsight.com ICPS Gender Equity Planning Key Principles 2004 Developing an analytical framework

Growth though essential not enough Building accountability is complex Accountability builds sustainability Clients and providers enhancing consumer participation Citizens and politicians the significance of Voice Policymakers and providers (compacts, management and the long road to accountability) higher-quality systems, strengthen the relationships Of accountability and longer term effectiveness When systems of accountability fail the poor (think gender are hit the hardest

Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford Ibixinsight.com ICPS Gender Equity Planning Key elements State Politicians Policy Makers Providers Businesses

Citizens Clients Rich /Poor Gendered Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford Ibixinsight.com ICPS Gender Equity Planning Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford Ibixinsight.com ICPS Gender Equity Planning

Eight aspects to consider Multiple challenges Building accountability Poor people are often trapped in a system of dysfunctional service- delivery relationships. Making just one link more effective may not be enoughit may even be counterproductiveif there are serious problems

elsewhere in the service delivery chain. Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford Ibixinsight.com ICPS Gender Equity Planning Eight factors of challenge Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford Ibixinsight.com ICPS Gender Equity

Planning The gender dimension Successful service delivery for poor people, and especially poor women, can only emerge from institutional relationships in which actors are accountable to each other; whether by the empowerment of poor people, or by the social inclusion of poor people by service providers. These actions fall under the short route of accountability: a direct route between clients and providers or government. The long route requires parliamentarians to fulfil an oversight role in participative planning and budgeting processes, and hold providers accountable for their services to citizens/clients.

Donors and civil society can both contribute by supporting the Dr hold Carrie Pemberton Ford Ibixinsight.com poor to make themselves heard and the powerful accountable. ICPS Gender Equity Planning Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford Ibixinsight.com ICPS Gender Equity

Planning Sectors for Governance Certain sectors are defined in gendered terms 'women's work' or 'men's work'. The interests of bureaucratic agencies can be gendered and have an impact on gender equality; if a ministry of women or social affairs is in charge of a programme, it is more likely to include gender equality goals than a ministry of finance or rural development (Jones and Holmes, 2011). Gender analysis allows the inclusion of different and possibly competing voices.

Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford IbixInsight.com ICPS Gender Equity Planning Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford Ibixinsight.com ICPS Gender Equity Planning 4 Principles in accountability Citizens/clients: empowerment being part of the process NOT being DONE to

Providers: social inclusion gendered roles and excluded from power and access to wealth creation/ inheritance/ land ownership resource exploitation Politicians/policymakers: supporting womens empowerment and social inclusion Civil society: supporting womens empowerment and Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford Ibixinsight.com social inclusion ICPS Gender Equity Planning Responsiveness in Governance Partnerships

- important to measure the impact of capacity building or holding governments to account. Base-lining = mapping intended impacts DFIDs indicators of responsiveness measure the extent to which public policies and institutions respond to the needs of citizens and uphold their rights, including human rights/liberties, access to basic public services, pro-poor policy, equality, regulation and corruption. Indicators of progress must include indicators that can track improved capability, increased accountability and evidence of government and system responsiveness.

Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford IbixInsight.com ICPS Gender Equity Planning Mutual Accountability - OECD Mutual accountability holding donors , partners (businesses / banks/ governments / NGOs) accountable for development results through systems, procedures and capacities, in donor and recipient countries, which measure aid performance. What is needed is specific accountability indicators of the impact, at national and local level, of development spending

on gender equality. Measures targets impacts time frames, accounting, (gendered outcomes and participation) Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford Ibixinsight.com DUTCH development of accountability systems in education ICPS Gender Equity Planning Enhancing accountability mechanisms What mechanisms in you are currently deploying

place currently on programmes you are running out for accountability? What are the key components of accountability? Are they long term or short term routes which are being deployed by your work currently? Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford Ibixinsight.com ICPS Gender Equity

Planning Accountability Transparency Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford Ibixinsight.com ICPS Gender Equity Planning Voice Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford Ibixinsight.com

ICPS Gender Equity Planning Concept of voice Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford Ibixinsight.com ICPS Gender Equity Planning World Bank Report 2004 Significant CHANGE BUT Glacially slow (reflect though on Glaciers! carve out whole landscapes- - so

Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford Ibixinsight.com ICPS Gender Equity Planning Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford Ibixinsight.com ICPS Gender Equity Planning Inclusion of Womens Voice UK based NGO

transformed system Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford Ibixinsight.com ICPS Gender Equity Planning CSO theory of change Non Linear each component requires action Backlash and resistance occurs World Bank insistence on seeking Government compacts where possible VOICE for women when gender inequality clearly demonstrated (lack of political / governance / management

representation) Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford Ibixinsight.com ICPS Gender Equity Planning DFID 2015 guidance on WHAT Works in making interventions in Gender Equality and Womens

and girls empowerment Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford Ibixinsight.com ICPS Gender Equity Planning Strategies Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford Ibixinsight.com ICPS Gender Equity Planning

Barriers Lack of weight to Womens Voices and representation across civil, political, familial, institutional and business spaces. Proliferation of discriminatory policies and laws unresponsive to differing requirements for men and women to access public space. Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford Ibixinsight.com ICPS Gender Equity

Planning Guiding Principles DFID 2015 Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford Ibixinsight.com ICPS Gender Equity Planning Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford Ibixinsight.com ICPS Gender Equity Planning

Measuring Intention, baseline and impact Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford IbixInsight.com ICPS Gender Equity Planning Gender Mainstreaming in Governance Gender mainstreaming is the process of including gender equality considerations into all stages of policy planning, development, implementation and evaluation. Put simply it

means putting gender equality into mainstream policies. Gender disaggregated indicators need to be collected, and regularly reported and analysed. This is vital for later evaluation of the effectiveness of gender mainstreaming in the policy area Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford IbixInsight.com ICPS Gender Equity Planning

Gender Impact Assessments In Governance Maternal deaths, Neo Natal deaths as critical data in Health Care analysis also eating disorders, suicide, depression Where are women at all stages of employment pipe line and Governance in Health in Governance Ministerial policy impacts - employment, transport, and contraception. Schools facilities and opportunities for all and Gendered impacts Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford IbixInsight.com

ICPS Gender Equity Planning Gender Mainstreaming Representation within all aspects of delivery IGOs CSOs Parliament Civil Service Business

partners Clients Regional Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford Ibixinsight.com governance ICPS Gender Equity Planning Key areas for address Accountability Democracy Transparency Addressing Corruption (who is most damaged) Giving Voice Supporting gender change

Announcing / supporting the power for change Monitoring Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford Ibixinsight.com ICPS Gender Equity Planning Intersectionality Intersectionality explores the inequalities which are experienced by women : the understanding of how women's overlapping identities including race, class, ethnicity, religion, age, reproductive capacity and sexual orientation impact the way they experience

oppression and discrimination. Critical in any analysis of GENDERED space and how this works with other differentiators. It builds heterogeneity into your development of mapping out different clusters and groups of clients, partners and arenas where your smartest interventions might target. Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford Ibixinsight.com ICPS Gender Equity Planning Working with Womens empowerment groups Reach and Impact of

Womens empowerment and rights organisations Participation and voice Influencing through the system institutional transformations. Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford Ibixinsight.com ICPS Gender Equity Planning DFID 2015 Voice and

Participation Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford Ibixinsight.com ICPS Gender Equity Planning How to access Voice? Building appropriate frameworks for accessing Voice Building structural (formal) capacity Building Agency

Heterogeneity Intersectionality Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford Ibixinsight.com ICPS Gender Equity Planning Transformational or business as usual? DFID 2015 Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford Ibixinsight.com

ICPS Gender Equity Planning Bibliography http://www.oecd.org/dac/gender- development/45745924.pdf https:// www.oecd.org/dac/effectiveness/458273 00.pdf https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bi

tstream/handle/10986/5986/WDR%2020 Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford Ibixinsight.com 04%20-% 20English.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y ICPS Gender Equity Planning DFID (2008) DFID Practice Paper: Accountability Briefing Note February 2008

DFID (2009) Measuring change and results in voice and accountability work Working paper 34 Social Development Direct by Jeremy Holland and Allyson Thirkell with Emmanuel Trepanier and Lucy Earle December 2009 DFID http://reports.weforum.org/global-gender-gap-report-2014 Dr Carrie Pemberton Ford IbixInsight.com

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