General Chemistry 1 Sections 7-12 - Oneonta

General Chemistry 1 Sections 7-12 - Oneonta

Announcements TEXTBOOK/CLICKERS HOMEWORK LAB NEXT WEEK CHEMISTRY HELP CENTER ATTENDANCE SHEETS Chapter 1: Matter and Measurement Atoms and Elements Molecules and Compounds Classification of Matter Properties of Matter and Measurement

Temperature Mass Volume Unit Analysis Calculations The Periodic Table- Its 140 This Year! ATOM Smallest unit of matter ELEMENT Contains only 1 type of

atom MOLECULE Contains >1 atom connected together COMPOUND Contains >1 atom connected together AND >1 type of element

Pure Substances= Elements and Compounds Classification of Matter Clicker Question 1 Which of the following is a pure substance? a. Grain alcohol b. Sparkling water c.

14-carat gold d. Chocolate chip Clicker Question 2 What is a root beer float? a. Compound b. Element c. Homogeneous Mixture

d. Heterogeneous Mixture Lets ponder the Root Beer Float some more Root beer float deconstructed* Ice cream

Sugar Cream Vanilla Root beer Carbonated water

Water Carbon Dioxide Sugar Root extracts (sassafras, sarsparilla root, liquorice, anise, etc.) * An homage to a great book, Twinkie Deconstructed, by Steve Ettlinger Chapter 2: Modern Atomic Theory Matter consists of atoms

Atoms consist of three fundamental particles, found in the nucleus and the space around the nucleus Chapter 2- Elements and Compounds Modern atomic theory All matter is composed of small particles called atoms Atoms are made up of three subatomic particles Arrangement of Particles in the Atom Small nucleus contains nucleons:

Positively charged protons Neutrons with no charge Vast majority of mass Outside the nucleus

Negatively charged electrons Large volume of (mostly empty) space relative to nucleus Atoms All atoms of an element have the same atomic number = number of protons In a neutral atom (no charge), the number of positively and negatively charged particles must be equal # protons = # electrons

The mass number = protons + neutrons Isotopes IsotopesAtoms with same number of protons but different number of neutrons Isotopes When two atoms have the same atomic number (Z), but different atomic masses (A), they are called isotopes

Isotopes differ in the number of neutrons ATOM SYMBOLS mass numberA atomic numberZX 35 17 Cl

17 protons 35-17=18 neutrons EXAMPLE: How many neutrons does Molybdenum-90 have? # protons=42 90 # neutrons= 90-42=48 Mo

42 Isotopes Most elements have multiple isotopes 1H, 2H (deuterium), 3H (tritium, radioactive) 79Br, 81Br 64Zn, 66Zn, 67Zn, 68Zn, 70Zn Atomic mass is the mass of a single atom Average atomic mass takes into account isotopes and natural abundance We use atomic mass units (u)

1 amu = 1u = 1.661 x 1024 g (about the mass of a proton) Its Time For Some Donut Math! Dunkin Donuts sells both regular-sized donuts and Munchkins Lets say that of all the donuts sold: 78.3% are regular-sized (mass= 57g)

21.7% are Munchkins (mass= 10g) What is the weighted average mass of a Dunkin Donut? Isotopes and Average Atomic Mass all isotopes Average atomic mass =

(fractional abundance) (mass of isotope) A Non-Edible Example Chlorine has two isotopes: Isotope Mass (u) % Abundance 35

34.969 75.78 37 36.966 24.22 Cl

Cl What is the average atomic mass of Chlorine? What do these things have in common? Floyd Landis Case Landis won 2006 Tour de France Tested positive for testosterone doping Does Landis have an high testosterone level? testosterone

epitestosterone Floyd Landis Case Is the excess testosterone natural or synthetic? Isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (CIR) used to determine the ratio of 13 Photosynthesis prefers

C to 12 12 C in Landis testosterone C

C3 plants: Strong preference for C4 plants: Less of a preference for 12 C C

12 Normal diet= mixture of C3 and C4 plants Synthetic testosterone comes from soy, contains less 13 C 13C:12C reduced Landis positive for doping What do these things have in common?

What holds an atom together? Coulombs Law of electrostatic interactions. General Behavior: Like charges repel. Opposite charges attract. What holds an atom together? Coulombs Law of electrostatic interactions. If we double a charge from +1 to +2, the force will: 1.

2. 3. 4. Double Halve Quadruple Quarter What holds an atom together? Coulombs Law of electrostatic interactions. If we double the distance, the force will:

1. 2. 3. 4. Double Halve Quadruple Quarter Whats wrong with this picture?

Electrons are held near the nucleus by the electrostatic attraction between them, but The forces of nature: Were not just making it up! How could we possibly know that the nucleus is small compared to the size of the atom? Why not think the protons, electrons and neutrons are all mixed together?

The Rutherford Experiment Were not just making it up! The Rutherford Experiment Were not just making it up! The Rutherford Experiment

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