Genes:DNA, RNA, Protiens

Plant Genetics Modified by Georgia Agriculture Education Curriculum Office June, 2002 August 2008 Biotechnology pest pest resistance resistance herbicide herbicide resistance resistance environmental environmental stress stress resistance resistance nutritionally nutritionally complete complete plants plants flowers flowers with with unusual unusual colors colors delayed delayed ripening/softening ripening/softening specific

specific nutritional nutritional qualities qualities product product uniformity uniformity August 2008 Central Dogma of Molecular Biology DNA RNA transcription replication August 2008 translatio n Protein Proteins Enzymes = catalysts Structural Components, e.g., membranes, cytoskeleton

August 2008 Proteins Chain of amino acids linked by peptide bonds H O C N H2N C COOH H di-peptide (2 amino R acids); tri-peptide (3); R = variable group polypeptide (>3) 20 common amino acids differ by the `R group August 2008 DNA vs. RNA 4 bases: guanine (G), cytosine (C), adenine (A), thymine (T) G-C A-T deoxyribose sugar double stranded nucleus August 2008 4 bases: guanine (G),

cytosine (C), adenine (A), uraacil (U) G-C A-U ribose sugar single stranded rRNA, mRNA, tRNA synthesized in nucleus (nucleoi for rRNA); function in cytosol Major Compounds of life Macromolecule 4. Nucleic Acids (DNA + RNA) Simple Molecule Structure nucleotides (sugar + phosphate + N-base) NH2 N N O HO - P - O N

N O O phosphoric acid adenine (N-base) OH OH ribose (sugar) Function: Major Compounds of Life Nucleic Acids genetic information/heredity protein synthesis August 2008 RNA rRNA RNA + protein form ribosomes mRNA carries DNA code to cytosol for protein synthesis on the ribosomes

read in triplets called codons (5 to 3) tRNA carries amino acids to mRNA and matches up by base-pairing of triplet anti-codon with mRNA codon triplet August 2008 Double-Stranded DNA Molecule complementary base-pairing 5 T G G C A TT C A C G A T T GG A C A 3 Hbonds 3 A C C G T AA G T G C T A A CC T G T sugar-P backbone (phospho-diester bonds) 5 TRANSCRIPTION DNA

5 RNA T G G C A TT C A C G A T T GG A C A 3 3 CGA U A C U U A 3 DNA 5 C A C C G T AA G T G C T A A CC T G T G G U 5 RNA strand TRANSLATION RNA

Protein triplet codons mRNA 5 U G G C C A U U C A C G A U triplet anti-codons 3 amino 2 acids/ peptide 1 chain ACCGGU A AG 4 tRNAs 5 3 THE GEN ETIC C OD E 1st Position (5' end)

U C A G Second P osition Third P osition 3' U C A G Phe Ser Tyr Cys U

Phe Ser Tyr Cys C Leu Ser St op St op A Leu Ser St op Trp G

Leu Pro His Arg U Leu Pro His Arg C Leu Pro Gln Arg A Leu

Pro Gln Arg G Ile Thr Asn Ser U Ile Thr Asn Ser C Ile

Thr Lys Arg A Met Thr Lys Arg G Val Ala Asp Gly U Val Ala

Asp Gly C Val Ala Glu Gly A Val Ala Glu Gly G The genetic code above refers to the triplet cod ons in the mRN A sequence.

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