Genocide

Genocide

Pre-Writing Activity With someone sitting next to you, discuss the following questions: - What is genocide? - Where has it occurred? Record your and your partners answers on a sheet of paper that you will turn in at the end of the period. Genocide The eight stages of genocide, as defined by Gregory H. Stanton What are the eight stages of genocide?

Classification Symbolization Dehumanization Organization Polarization Preparation Extermination Denial Stage One: CLASSIFICATION Insert Photo Here

Stage One: CLASSIFICATION Everyday, we speak in terms of us and them. Our team and their team. Americans and Iraqis. Christians and Muslims. Straights and gays. This is the first stage of genocide, though it does not mean that every society in which classification occurs will have a genocide occur. The more bi-polar the society is, the more likely a genocide is to occur. The more separate - physically and ideologically - these two groups in a society, the more likely that one will attempt to exterminate the other group. Stage One: CLASSIFICATION ON YOUR PAPER: Think of one way in

which we separate people in our culture. Do you think this is likely to lead to a genocide? Why or why not? Stage 1: Classification Us versus them Distinguish by nationality, ethnicity, race, or religion.

Bipolar societies (Rwanda) most likely to have genocide because no way for classifications to fade away through inter-marriage. Classification is a primary method of dividing society and creating a power struggle between groups.

Classification (Rwanda) Belgian colonialists believed Tutsis were a naturally superior nobility, descended from the Israelite tribe of Ham. The Rwandan royalty was Tutsi. Belgians distinguished between Hutus and Tutsis by nose size, height & eye type. Another indicator to distinguish Hutu farmers from Tutsi pastoralists was the number of cattle owned. Prevention: Classification

Promote common identities (national, religious, human.) Use common languages (Swahili in Tanzania, science, music.) Actively oppose racist and divisive politicians and parties.

Stage Two: SYMBOLIZATION Stage Two: SYMBOLIZATION Once groups are classified, they typically - either of their own volition to establish their identity or by force so that the dominant group can easily identify them - adopt symbols so that they can be told apart. In some cases - particularly where race or ethnicity is concerned symbolization occurs even before classification, as the symbols that suggest they belong with a certain group are innate, such as the color of their skin or their physical features. Again, this stage is one that does not necessarily lead to genocide.

Stage 2: Symbolization Names: Jew, German, Hutu, Tutsi. Languages. Types of dress.

Group uniforms: Nazi Swastika armbands Colors and religious symbols: Yellow star for Jews Stage 2: Symbolization (Rwanda) Ethnicity was first noted on cards by Belgian Colonial Authorities in 1933.

Tutsis were given access to limited education programs and Catholic priesthood. Hutus were given less assistance by colonial auhorities. At independence, these preferences were reversed. Hutus were favored. These ID cards were later used to distinguish Tutsis from Hutus in the 1994 massacres of Tutsis and moderate Hutus that resulted in 800,000+ deaths. Symbolization (Nazi Germany) Jewish Passport: Reisepss Required to be carried by all Jews by 1938. Preceded

the yellow star. Symbolization (Nazi Germany) Nazis required the yellow Star of David emblem to be worn by nearly all Jews in Nazi-occupied Europe by 1941.

Symbolization (Nazi Germany) Homosexuals = pink triangles Identified homosexuals to SS guards in the camps Caused discrimination by fellow inmates who shunned homosexuals Symbolization (Cambodia)

People in the Eastern Zone, near Vietnam, were accused of having Khmer bodies, but Vietnamese heads. They were deported to other areas to be

worked to death. They were marked with a blue and white checked scarf (Kroma) Stage Two: SYMBOLIZATION ON YOUR PAPER: Do groups you identified for the last stage have symbols that allow them - or others - to tell them apart? If so, what are they? Prevention:

Symbolization Get ethnic, religious, racial, and national identities removed from ID cards, passports. Protest imposition of marking symbols on targeted groups (yellow cloth on Hindus in Taliban Afghanistan).

Protest negative or racist words for groups (niggers, kaffirs, etc.) Work to make them culturally unacceptable. Stage Three: DEHUMANIZATION Stage Three: DEHUMANIZATION One group denies the humanity of the other group. Members of that group are equated with rodents, insects, other vermin, and even diseases. If this stage takes hold, it becomes more difficult to stop the progression of genocide.

Stage 3: Dehumanization One group denies the humanity of another group, and makes the victim group seem subhuman. Dehumanization overcomes the normal human revulsion against murder.

. Der Strmer Nazi Newspaper: The Blood Flows; The Jew Grins Kangura Newspaper, Rwanda: The Solution for Tutsi Cockroaches Dehumanization

From a Nazi SS Propaganda Pamphlet: Caption: Does the same soul dwell in these bodies? Dehumanization Hate propaganda in speeches, print and on hate radios vilify the victim group.

Members of the victim group are described as animals, vermin, and diseases. Hate radio, Radio Tlvision Libre des Mille Collines, during the Rwandan genocide in 1994, broadcast anti-Tutsi messages like kill the cockroaches and If this disease is not treated immediately, it will destroy all the Hutu. Dehumanization invokes superiority of one group and inferiority of the other.

Dehumanization justifies murder by calling it ethnic cleansing, or purification. Such euphemisms hide the horror of mass murder. Stage Three: DEHUMANIZATION ON YOUR PAPER: Why is it necessary for a dominant power to dehumanize the victims of a genocide? Why would it be impossible for a genocide to accomplish its goal without this stage?

Prevention: Dehumanization Vigorously protest use of dehumanizing words that refer to people as filth, vermin, animals or diseases. Deny people using such words visas and freeze their foreign assets and contributions.

Prosecute hate crimes and incitements to commit genocide. Jam or shut down hate radio and television stations where there is danger of genocide. Prevention: Dehumanization

Provide programs for tolerance to radio, TV, and newspapers. Enlist religious and political leaders to speak out and educate for tolerance. Organize inter-ethnic, interfaith, and inter-racial groups to work against hate and genocide. Stage Four: ORGANIZATION Stage Four: ORGANIZATION

In order for the final stages of genocide to take place, organization must occur. The group that organizes in preparation is typically part of the state due to the amount of financial support required. It can, however, be a terrorist group; because of the amount of organization required, though, any group that successfully organizes a genocide is usually sanctioned - at least to some extent - by a state. To a certain extent, you should think of this stage as the proverbial calm before the storm. The roots of the final stages are beginning to take hold, but very little is actually being done to the victimized group yet. Stage 4: Organization

Genocide is a group crime, so must be organized. The state usually organizes, arms and financially supports the groups that conduct the genocidal massacres. (State organization is not a legal requirement --Indian partition.) Plans are made by elites for a final solution of genocidal killings.

Organization (Rwanda) Hutu Power elites armed youth militias called Interahamwe ("Those Who Stand Together). The government and

Hutu Power businessmen provided the militias with over 500,000 machetes and other arms and set up camps to train them to protect their villages by exterminating every Tutsi. Prevention: Organization

Treat genocidal groups as the organized crime groups they are. Make membership in them illegal and demand that their leaders be arrested. Deny visas to leaders of hate groups and freeze their foreign assets. Impose arms embargoes on hate groups

and governments supporting ethnic or religious hatred. Create UN commissions to enforce such arms embargoes and call on UN members to arrest arms merchants who violate them. Stage Four: ORGANIZATION ON YOUR PAPER: What specifics would have to be worked out by the enactors of a genocide? Stage Five: POLARIZATION

Go where you wanted me to go, you evil spirit. Stage 5: Polarization Extremists drive the groups apart.

Hate groups broadcast and print polarizing propaganda. Laws are passed that forbid intermarriage or social interaction. Political moderates are silenced, threatened and Public intimidated, and killed. demonstrations were organized against Jewish merchants. Moderate

German dissenters were the first to be arrested and sent to concentration camps. Polarization Attacks are staged and blamed on targeted groups.

In Germany, the Reichstag fire was blamed on Jewish Communists in 1933. Cultural centers of targeted groups are attacked. On Kristalnacht in 1938, hundreds of synagogues were burned.

Stage Five: POLARIZATION During this stage, the groups are driven even further apart ideologically. Hate groups begin broadcasting propaganda with greater frequency, and laws typically are enacted to forbid any sort of relations between the two groups. At this stage, it is not just the victimized group that suffers. Any sympathizers or moderates are either threatened or attacked by the dominant, oppressing group. Prevention: Polarization

Vigorously protest laws or policies that segregate or marginalize groups, or that deprive whole groups of citizenship rights. Physically protect moderate leaders, by use of armed guards and armored vehicles. Demand the release of moderate leaders if they are arrested. Demand and conduct

investigations if they are murdered. Oppose coups dtat by extremists. Stage Five: POLARIZATION ON YOUR PAPER: Have you ever seen a piece of propaganda intended to polarize groups? If you have, please describe it. If you have not, please try to imagine what it might look like.

Stage Six: PREPARATION Stage Six: PREPARATION Whereas in the previous stage the victimized group was separated ideologically from the dominant group, in this stage the victimized group is separated physically from the rest of the society. The victimized group or groups are gathered together, either in ghettoes or concentration camps. At times, they are even forced into a famine-struck area and starved, beginning the seventh stage of genocide. At this stage, the world typically becomes aware of what is going on, whether they actually step in or not.

Stage 6: Preparation Members of victim groups are forced to wear identifying symbols. Death lists are

made. Victims are separated because of their ethnic or religious identity. Preparation

Segregation into ghettoes is imposed, victims are forced into concentration camps. Victims are also deported to faminestruck regions for starvation.

Forced Resettlement into Ghettos Poland 1939 - 1942 Preparation Weapons killing piled.

are for stock- Extermination camps are even built. This buildup of killing capacity is a major step towards actual genocide.

Prevention: Preparation With evidence of death lists, arms shipments, militia training, and trial massacres, a Genocide Alert should be declared. UN Security Council should warn it will act (but only if it really will act.)

Diplomats must warn potential perpetrators. Humanitarian relief should be prepared. Military intervention forces should be organized, including logistics and financing. Stage Six: PREPARATION ON YOUR PAPER: Assuming that at this stage,

the world cannot help but notice that the victimized group is being forced from their homes in preparation to be slaughtered, why wouldnt this be the stage where every genocide ends? This is not a rhetorical question. Stage Seven: EXTERMINATION This is the stage where this process legally becomes genocide. Mass killings occur quickly and systematically. When genocide is sponsored by the state, as it almost always is, the armed forces typically

work with well-organized militias to exterminate the victims. Stage 7: Extermination (Genocide) Extermination Extermination begins, and becomes the mass killing legally called "genocide."

Most genocide is committed by governments. Einsatzgrupen: Nazi Killing Squads Stage Seven: EXTERMINATION ON YOUR PAPER: What previous stage or stages allow(s) extermination to happen so quickly? If you think that the answer is all of them, please identify which stage or stages most enable the rapidity of the execution. Extermination

(Genocide) Government organized extermination of Tutsis in Rwanda in 1994 Extermination (Genocide) The killing is extermination to the killers because they do not believe

the victims are fully human. They are cleansing the society of impurities, disease, animals, Roma (Gypsies) in a Nazi death camp Extermination: Stopping

Genocide Regional organizations, national governments, and the UN Security Council should impose targeted sanctions to undermine the economic viability of the perpetrator regime. Sales of oil and imports of gasoline should

be stopped by blockade of ports and land routes. Perpetrators should be indicted by the International Criminal Court. Extermination: Stopping Genocide The UN Security Council should authorize armed intervention by regional military forces or by a UN force under Chapter Seven of the UN Charter.

The Mandate must include protection of civilians and humanitarian workers and a No Fly Zone. The Rules of Engagement must be robust and include aggressive prevention of killing. The major military powers must provide

leadership, logistics, airlift, communications, and financing. If the state where the genocide is underway will not permit entry, its UN membership should be suspended. Stage Eight: DENIAL Stage 8: Denial

Denial is always found in genocide, both during it and after it. Continuing denial is among the surest indicators of further genocidal massacres. Denial extends the crime of genocide to future generations of the victims. It is a continuation of the intent to destroy the group. The tactics of denial are predictable.

Denial: Deny the Evidence. Deny that there was any mass killing at all. Question and minimize the statistics.

Block access to archives and witnesses. Intimidate or kill eye-witnesses. Denial: Deny the Evidence Destroy the evidence. (Burn the bodies and the archives, dig up

and burn the mass graves, throw bodies in rivers or seas.) Holocaust Death-Camp Crematoria Stage Eight: DENIAL If intervention does not occur during the seventh stage of genocide, denial always follows extermination. Mass graves are dug up and bodies are burned; the evidence that the genocide ever occurred is systematically eradicated. Witnesses are bribed, intimidated, or killed. Investigations into the crimes are blocked by the government that

committed the atrocities. Typically, the victims of the genocide are blamed for their fates if their disappearance is brought up. Stage Eight: DENIAL ON YOUR PAPER: Think about the psychological factors that would contribute to the effectiveness of the denial. How could someone who witnessed or took part in a genocide come to believe that a genocide had not occurred? Homework ON YOUR PAPER: How has your understanding of

genocide changed during this class period? Assuming that I did not show you this to make you uncomfortable or sicken you, why did I share these stages and these images of genocide with you? Please write roughly half of a page. You will turn this in at the beginning of class tomorrow for two summative writing grades. You can find the information in this presentation at www.genocidewatch.org/8stages.htm. This website also contains suggestions about how to stop genocide at each of the stages.

Images taken from http://www.calvin.edu/academic/cas/gpa/sturmer.htm and various sources found through Google Images. Genocide in History There are many cases of Genocide which have existed throughout our history dating back to biblical times. Genocides From 1500-1950

The Native Canadian people(Mikmaw, Beothuk) The Congo 1820-1920 Ottoman Empire (19321933) Holodomor World War II Mao Zedong Native Canadian People Population declined 80-90% in the first 100 years After the arrival of the Europeans in 1492- Native

populations began to drastically decrease. Some methods of genocide included Murder Infected smallpox blankets Scalping Proclamations Treaties

Centralization (1942) The Indian Act (Residential Schools) 1928-1982 The Congo21.5 million people died in Congo from 1880-1920 The population decreased due to murder, disease, starvation. Congo Free State was privately owned by King Leopold II and he started the mass murders and slave labor. In 1908 end of Leopolds rule

Holodomor 1932-1933 7,000,000 to 15,000,000 people, mostly Ukrainians, died Famine was the act of Genocide committed by the Soviet Govern. In 1932 the Soviets increased grain production 44%, which resulted in Grain Shortage- the peasants could not feed themselves. The Soviet knew this, but would not let them eat (by law) until the quota was met. They could not travel for food. Stalin states that "the great bulk (of the 10 million) were very unpopular and were wiped out by their labourers."

Armenian Genocide (1915-1923) Up to 1.5 million Armenians were slaughtered The Ottoman Empire (Turkish) existed from 1299 to 1923. They were responsible for the following: Deportation of 2,000,000 from their homeland1,500,000 of the men, women and children were then murdered. 500,000 were expelled from the Armenian homeland which existed for 2,500 years. The Turkish gov. disputes these charges 15 countries agree (France and Russia) WORLD WAR II 1939-1945

Over 11 million People were killed. During the Holocaust the Nazis killed 6million Jews, 3 million POWs, 2 million Poles and 400,000 other undesirables(slaves, homosexuals and communists) The holocaust was most predominant from previous genocides because of the cruelty, scale and efficiency of the mass murders. People were killed by: open-air shootings, by killing squads, extermination camps (gas chambers, mass shootings) Mao Zedong killed 30 million Chinese

people during his reign in 1945-1976 Although World War II is the most common Genocide that occurred during 1500-1950s, it is very important for us to understand the other cases of Genocide that have occurred throughout our history and our World. Genocides from 1951-Present Cambodia (19751979) Saddam Hussein's Baath Party Rwanda 1994

Sudan Cambodia 1975-1979 The Khmer Rouge killed 1.7 million The communist party Khmer Rouge ruled Cambodia from 1975-1979. They were responsible for forced labour, starvation, and execution. This was one of the most lethal regimes of the 20th century. This communist party killed suspect ethnic groups- Chinese, Vietnamese,Buddhist monks,

and refugees. Saddam Husseins Baath Party In 1987-1991 (approx) the Baath Party killed 100,000 Kurds. (The Kurds are people of Indo-European origin who live mainly in the mountains and uplands where Turkey, Iraq, and Iran meet, in an area known as "Kurdistan" for hundreds of years) The Gulf War (1990) It is estimated that 300,000 people are buried in 260 mass graves. 1991-2003- Estimates of 500,000 to 1.2 million people were killed through bombings. After the September 11, 2001 attacks- the US invaded

Iraq-2003 Saddam was captured. RWANDA 1994 The Rwandan Genocide was the slaughter of an estimated 800,000 to 1,000,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus, mostly carried out by two extremist Hutu militia groups (Interahamwe and Impuzamugambi) during a period of 100 days from April 6th through mid-July 1994. The Western and First World Countries did nothing to help this situation. Prior to the attacks the UN did not respond to reports of the Hutu plans.

This Genocide was ended when the Tutsi rebel movement (Rwandese Political Front) lead by Paul Kagame seized power of the Hutu Government. Rwanda 1994 Hutu Mobs armed with machetes and other weapons killed roughly 8,000 Tutsis a day during a three-month campaign of terror. Powerful nations stood by as the slaughter surged on despite pleas from Rwandan and UN observers National Geographic 2006.

Sudan Civil War 1983 Sudan signed a peace agreement in 2002- where they were accused of genocide. Since the civil war began in 1983: 2,000,000 people have been killed 4, 000, 000 people have been displaced. Mukesh Kapila ( UN coordinator) has stated that "This is more than just a conflict. It is an organised attempt [by Khartoum] to do away with a group of people. The only difference between Rwanda [in 1994] and Darfur now is the numbers of dead, murdered, tortured and raped involved. Sudan Cont

In 2004, it became widely known that a nomadic group Janjaweed was trying to get rid of 80 black African groups in the Darfur region. This was is very similar to Rwanda. However professional/intellectuals are not being attackedit is a fight between the nomads and farmers for land. There is risk of famine and a threat to international security.

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