Geology and Non-renewable Mineral Resources

Geology and Non-renewable Mineral Resources

Geology and Non-renewable Mineral Resources Ch. 14 Gold (Au): metallic mineral resource Extraction process requires spraying of toxic cyanide salts Drains into collection ponds, then leaches into ground water Core Case Study: The Real Cost of Gold What is geology? Dynamic processes taking place on earths surface and in earths interior Three major concentric zones of the earth

Core Mantle Asthenosphere-partly melted rock Lithosphere-rigid outermost layer of mantle Crust Continental crust Oceanic crust: 71% of crust The Earth Is a Dynamic Planet Convection cells, or currents Move large volumes of rock and heat Like huge conveyer belts Tectonic Plates- moving rigid plates atop the asthenosphere

Very slow moving Part of the lithosphere The Earth Beneath Your Feet Is Moving (1) Three types of boundaries between plates Divergent boundaries- plates move apart Oceanic ridge- 2 oceanic plates move apart Convergent boundaries-plates move toward each other Mountain formation- continental plates collide Subduction- oceanic plate and continental plate collide Trench- 2 oceanic plates collide Normally forms at boundary between 2 plates Transform boundaries: San Andreas fault

Slide past and grind one another The Earth Beneath Your Feet Is Moving (2) The Earths Crust Is Made Up of a Mosaic of Huge Rigid Plates: Tectonic Plates Fig. 14-3, p. 348 EURASIAN EURASIAN PLATE PLATE NORTH NORTH AMERICAN AMERICAN PLATE PLATE

JUAN JUAN DE DE FUCA FUCA PLATE PLATE ANATOLIAN ANATOLIAN PLATE PLATE CHINA CHINA SUBPLATE SUBPLATE CARIBBEAN CARIBBEAN PLATE PLATE

PACIFIC PACIFIC PLATE PLATE COCOS COCOS PLATE PLATE ARABIAN ARABIAN PLATE PLATE AFRICAN AFRICAN PLATE PLATE INDIA INDIA PLATE PLATE SOUTH SOUTH AMERICAN

AMERICAN PLATE PLATE NAZCA NAZCA PLATE PLATE SOMALIAN SOMALIAN SUBPLATE SUBPLATE PHILIPPINE PHILIPPINE PLATE PLATE PACIFIC PACIFIC PLATE

PLATE AUSTRALIAN AUSTRALIAN PLATE PLATE SCOTIA SCOTIA PLATE PLATE ANTARCTIC ANTARCTIC PLATE PLATE Divergent plate boundaries Convergent plate boundaries Transform faults

Fig. 14-4, p. 349 The San Andreas Fault as It Crosses Part of the Carrizo Plain in California, U.S. Fig. 14-5, p. 350 Internal geologic processes Generally build up the earths surface External geologic processes Wear down earths surface Weathering Physical, chemical, and biological Erosion

Wind Flowing water Human activities Glaciers Some Parts of the Earths Surface Build Up and Some Wear Down Volcano- magma reaches earths surface through central vent or fissure Lava- magma that reaches earths surface Eruption can have a cooling effect ejected material (ash,

soot, particulate) reduces incoming solar radiation 1991: Eruption of Mount Pinatubo (Philippines) 2nd largest eruption in 20th century Killed 100s of people Benefits of volcanic activity Mountain formation (aesthetic, habitat diversity) Weathering of lava contributes to soil fertility Volcanoes Release Molten Rock from the Earths Interior Extinct volcanoes Eruption cloud Ash Acid rain Ash flow

Lava flow Mud flow Central vent Landslide Magma conduit Solid lithosphere Partially molten asthenosphere Magma reservoir Upwelling

magma Fig. 14-6b, p. 351 Earthquake-internal geological process Formation of transform fault causes abrupt movement on an existing fault Seismic waves- accumulated vibrational energy Most occur on boundaries of tectonic plates Focus Epicenter Seismograph & the Richter Scale Earthquakes Are Geological Rock-and-Roll Events (1) Richter scale

Insignificant: <4.0 Minor: 4.04.9 Damaging: 5.05.9 Destructive: 6.06.9 Major: 7.07.9 Great: >8.0 Largest recorded earthquake: 9.5 in Chile in 1960 Earthquakes Are Geological Rock-and-Roll Events (2) Liquefaction of recent sediments causes buildings to sink Landslides may occur on hilly ground

Two adjoining plates move laterally along the fault line Earth movements cause flooding in low-lying areas Shock waves Epicenter Focus Fig. 14-7a, p. 351 Parts of ocean floor rises or drops Tsunami, tidal wave Travels several hundred miles per hour Detection of tsunamis

Buoys in open ocean December 2004: Indian Ocean tsunami Magnitude 9.15 and 31-meter waves at shore Role of coral reefs and mangrove forests in reducing death toll Earthquakes on the Ocean Floor Can Cause Huge Waves Called Tsunamis Earthquake in seafloor swiftly pushes water upwards, and starts a series of waves Waves move rapidly in deep ocean reaching speeds of up to 890 kilometers per hour.

As the waves near land they slow to about 45 kilometers per hour but are squeezed upwards and increased in height. Waves head inland causing damage in their path. Undersea thrust fault Upward wave Bangladesh India Myanmar Thailand Malaysia

Sri Lanka Earthquake Sumatra Indonesia December 26, 2004, tsunami Fig. 14-8, p. 352 Rock cycle Slowest of the earths cyclic processes The Earths Rocks Are Recycled Very Slowly Erosion Transportation

Weathering Deposition Igneous rock Granite, pumice, basalt Sedimentary rock Sandstone, limestone Heat, pressure Cooling Heat, pressure, stress Magma (molten rock)

Melting Metamorphic rock Slate, marble, gneiss, quartzite Fig. 14-10, p. 354 Mineral resource Can be extracted from earths crust and processed into raw materials and products at an affordable cost Metallic minerals Nonmetallic minerals Ore Contains profitable concentration of a mineral High-grade ore Low-grade ore 2

types of Minerals Non-metallic (ex: sand, gravel, limestone, phosphate salts) Metallic: (ex: gold, aluminum, copper) Mineral Resources are NONRenewable The Life Cycle of a Metal Resource Fig. 14-11, p. 355 Surface Mining Shallow minerals Requires: 1. Remove vegetation 2. Overburden: remove soil/rock

Waste piles called spoils Types of Surface Mining 1. 2. 3. 4. Open-Pit Mining Strip Mining Mountain-Top Removal Subsurface mining Removal method dependent on type of resource and local topography

Removing Mineral Deposits Heavy machinery used to dig large holes Removal of metals (iron, copper, gold) non-metals (limestone, marble) Open-Pit Mining Useful

for mineral deposits lying in large horizontal beds close to earths surface 1. Area Strip mining: Flat terrains 2. Contour Strip Mining: Mostly for coal reserved in hilly/mountainous terrain Often leaves a high wall Strip Mining Commonly used method in U.S. Appalachian mountain range Utilizes Explosives Earth movers

Power shovels draglines Mountaintop Removal Needed for deeper deposits Extracted from tunnels and shafts Common for coal and metal ores Miners dig deep vertical trenches Blast open subsurface tunnels Machinery for removal and transport Subsurface Mining

Land surface scarring Increased susceptibility of erosion Slow vegetation regrowth Generation of large amounts of waste rock and dirt May result in stream burial (increase floods), produce waste water/toxic sludge Land Subsidence Air pollution SPM generation from smelting and explosion Smelting also may release toxic gaseous pollutants Environmental and Health Impacts of Mining I.

Diagram locating the different tectonic plates Include the name & what type of plate it is Label the boundary types Include 4 examples of geological formations (ex. The San Andreas fault) II. Mining Describe the different mining methods and give examples of areas of specific reserves Identify 3 different chemicals used to extract minerals from their ore Specify which mineral a specific chemical is used for Research Assignment

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