Georgia Studies Unit 5: The New South Lesson 1: Economics of the New South Study Presentation Lesson 1: Economics of the New South ESSENTIAL QUESTION: How did politics, public discourse, and social reaction lead to divisions in Georgia after Reconstruction? The Bourbon Triumvirate
Democrats controlled Georgias government after Reconstruction. Powerful Democratic leaders, known as the Bourbon Triumvirate were Joseph E. Brown, Alfred H. Colquitt, and John B. Gordon. Their goals were: expand Georgias economy and ties with industries in the North; maintain the tradition of white supremacy. Decline of the Bourbon Triumvirate Independent Democrats criticized the Bourbons for not attending to the needs of the poor or improve education and working conditions in factories.
Leaders William and Rebecca Latimer Felton worked to improve conditions for poor Georgians using newspapers to highlight problems in the state. Rebecca Latimer Felton later briefly served as the first female United States Senator (from November 21, 1922 until the next day). The convict lease system rented prisoners to companies to use as workers. It took many years for the poor conditions the prisoners endured to be brought to light and changed. The New South Era Challengers to the Bourbon Triumvirate wanted Georgia to be more industrialized.
Henry Grady was a speaker and newspaper editor. Grady described Georgia as a place which could have competitive industry and more efficient farming. Grady envisioned improved race relations in a New South which left its antebellum past behind. Business in Georgia First International Cotton Exposition was held in 1881. Helped to show off the economic recovery of the South after Reconstruction. Other International Cotton Expositions were held in 1887 and 1895.
1895 International Cotton Exposition 800,000 visitors in three months designed to show economic recovery in the South encouraged investments in southern businesses Education in the New South Era Funding to provide elementary education for all children in Georgia grew slowly from 1868-1895. Teachers were paid a little more than farm hands and had little or no training. Normal schools were started to train more teachers. The school year was only three months long
which allowed children to work on farms or in factories. The state constitution of 1877 did not allow for school beyond 8th grade and segregated black and white students. Agriculture in the New South Era Crop prices declined through the 1870s. The Grange and the Farmers Alliance started out as social groups but began to reorganize to put pressure on lawmakers to find ways to help farmers. This was knows as populism. Georgia created the first state to have a Department of Agriculture.
Co-ops allowed farmers to work together to buy goods and equipment at a lower cost. The Progressive Movement Goal: Progress! Society fight poverty Improve child labor laws improve working conditions votes for women prison reform outlaw alcohol
Business break up large corporations regulate businesses decrease corporate power in government Government greater voice of the people more voters did not seek to
increase participation of blacks in elections The Peoples Party Populists: Supporters of a political idea (populism) that supported the rights of the common people in their struggle with the wealthy people Poor farmers and low wage workers were followers of Populists Grange and Farmers Alliance worked to protect farmers rights joined with unions to create Peoples Party Wanted Australian ballot printed by the government,
not local political parties, then collected and locked in ballot boxes Tom Watson, famous Georgia populist, worked for Rural Free Delivery bill to deliver mail to rural areas for free Georgias Progressive Era Governors Hoke Smith: worked to concentrate political power in the rural counties instead of larger counties and cities white supremacist led passage of law requiring land ownership before a person could vote excluded many blacks better funding of public schools
child labor laws passed Smith-Lever Act (1914): created Agricultural Extension Service to teach improved farming methods Smith-Hughes Act: helped establish vocational schools for youth Little Joe Brown: son of Civil War era governor Joseph E. Brown 1906 Atlanta Riot Began as a result of racial tensions between white and black citizens of Atlanta In 1906, Hoke Smith (former publisher of the Atlanta Journal) and Clark Howell (editor of the
Atlanta Constitution) were running for election as Georgias governor in 1906. Both men used their influence in the media to try and take away voting rights for black citizens. Newspapers began to publish stories about African American men attacking white women. Rioting began on September 22nd and lasted until September 26th. Military forces are eventually brought in to help end the riots. 21 people killed; hundreds of others wounded and large amounts of property were destroyed The Trial of Leo Frank 1913: man accused of killing a 14-year-old
employee, Mary Phagan in Atlanta Mr. Frank was a Jewish man from New York Little evidence against Mr. Frank, but he was convicted and sentenced to death Governor Slaton changed death sentence to life imprisonment Armed men, calling themselves the Knights of Mary Phagan, took Frank from the prison, and he was lynched White supremacist Ku Klux Klan reborn from the members of the Knights of Mary Phagan The County Unit System In 1917,the Neil Primary Act created the county
unit system. Plan designed to give small counties more power in state government so that the larger counties (which contained large numbers of black voters) would have less power Smaller counties had more county unit votes even though they had fewer voters People could be elected to office without getting a majority of votes Declared unconstitutional in 1962
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