GERUNDIVE AND GERUND - linguae

GERUNDIVE AND GERUND - linguae

GERUNDIVE AND GERUND GERUNDIVE A passive verbal adjective (sometimes described as a future passive participl e) usually formed by adding ndus, -a, -um to the base used in forming the i mperfect tense and present participle. In the third and fourth conjugations, u

can be used instead of e : ambat > amandus docbat > docendus regbat > regendus (regundus) audibat > audiendus (audiundus)

Used for expressing necessity, with the person who needs to act put in the D ative. With intransitive verbs, the neuter of the gerundive can be used impers onally. The most natural English translation is usually in the active voice: Nbs haec vocbula discenda sunt. We have to learn these words by heart. Mihi thetrum relinquendum est. I have to leave the theatre.

Nbs abeundum est. We have to go away. Also used in noun phrases where English would prefer the (active) gerund in ing or two nouns: D castrs dfendends colloqumur Lets talk about defending the cam

p/the defence of the camp. GERUND A verbal noun, identical to the neuter of the gerundive, but used in t

he active sense. It is not used in the nominative or as the direct obje ct of a verb. Puella hospits cantand dlectbat. The girl was delighting the guests by singing.

Equivalent to the English ing form of the verb when this is used as a noun. In these cases, English grammar also calls the ing form a gerund but when it is used like an adjective it is called a present part iciple

Can be used in a noun phrase with a noun in the accusative in place of a gerundive phrase but this tends to happen only when gerundive and noun both have long endings (especially genitive plural): d amcs dfendends (with gerundive) is better than d am cs dfendend (with gerund) amcs dfendend caus (with gerund) is better than a

mcrum dfendendrum caus (with gerundive) Cato, qu saecul secund ante Chr. n. vvbat, in fn e omnium ortinum eandem sententiam dcbat: ` dlenda est Carthg. duodecim lineae discipul improb scrbendae sunt

drac dormins nunquam est ttilland us Quntus male cantand omns vxbat . Ann CCXVIII ante Christum ntum, Hannibal trns Alps cu

m elephants et mlibus peditum contendend Rmns st upefcit. Brtus et Cassius Caesare necand bellum cvle effcrunt. (GERUNDIVE: `by Caesar being killed). Brtus et Cassius Caesarem necand bellum cvle effcrunt. (GERUND: `by killing Caesar).

Hortius Rmam ponte dfendend cnservvit lgtus equittum ad hosts sequends msit.

`nus hom nbs cunctand restituit rem Gollus s cum nul in ignes Montis F t faucs priciend Dominum trum

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