GROUPS AS SYSTEMS Chapter Two

GROUPS AS SYSTEMS Chapter Two

Focus Questions 1. Discuss how the Ronald Allen (Deltas Chairman) case study illustrates the importance of social relations on group performance and effectiveness. 2. How do the task and social dimensions of groups interconnect? 3. How does a group build cohesiveness?

TASK AND SOCIAL DIMENSIONS: WORKING AND SOCIALIZING Define Task and Social Dimension Task Dimension is, the work performed by a group. Social Dimension is, the relationships that form between members in the group and their impact on the group as a whole. TASK AND SOCIAL DIMENSION

CONTINUED The output from a groups task dimension is, productivity. The output from the social dimension is, cohesiveness. NOTE: Neither task nor the social dimension can be ignored for a Decision-making group to be successful.

THE CASE OF HORMONES WITH FEET A Case Study Read in your text on Page 7 Questions for Thought 1.How do you know when the group as a whole has become excessively social? 2.Have you ever experienced a similar case of over-socializing to the detriment of task accomplishment?

BUILDING COHESIVENESS: BRINGING US TOGETHER What are some strategies for groups to build cohesiveness? 1.Encourage compatible membership. 2.Develop shared goals. 3.Accomplish tasks> 4.Develop a positive history of cooperation. 5.Promote acceptance of group members.

WHY WE JOIN GROUPS We join groups to satisfy some need. This need satisfaction divides into six principle categories. 1.Need to belong 2.Interpersonal attraction (we are drawn to members of the group) 3.Attraction to the activities of the group 4.Attraction to group goals

5.Establishment of meaning and identity 6.Attraction to the fulfillment of needs outside of the group PERIODIC PHASES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT Tuckman describes four phases of group development which are: 1.Forming (individuals join for a reason,

appearing open, friendly) 2.Storming (a feeling the tension phase) 3.Norming ( a standards and rules of conduct phase) 4.Performing (focused on goal achievement) FOCUS QUESTIONS 1.Does why we join a group make any difference to the group?

2.Is tension in a group undesirable? 3.Where do group norms come from? Why do conform to group norms? 4.Under what conditions do groups outperform individuals? STORMING: FEELING THE TENSION What are the two types of social tension? 1.Primary Tension-this happens when you first

gather in a group 2.Secondary Tension-this stress and strain occurs later in the development of the group PRIMARY TENSION With time, you become comfortable with the group and your primary tension will diminish. Joking, laughing, and chatting about your

interests, experiences, and beliefs on noncontroversial subjects all serve to reduce primary tension. SECONDARY TENSION The goal is not to eliminate secondary tension in groups. Most decision-making groups experience secondary tension. With tolerable limits, such tension can be a

positive force. It can energize a group and challenge the members to think creatively. SECONDARY TENSION CONTINUED How can you handle secondary tension from a communication standpoint? 1.Tolerate, even encourage, disagreement. 2.Keep a civil tongue. 3.Be an active listener.

NORMING: REGULATING THE GROUP How do you define norms? Norms are rules that establish standards of appropriate behavior. What are two types of norms? Two types of norms are Explicit and Implicit

DEGREE OF CONFORMITY: STRENGH OF GROUP PRESSURE What is Conformity? Conformity is the adherence to group norms by group members, in this case following the crowd by choosing the wrong answer. The degree of conformity is the U.S. is fairly high but it is higher in other cultures. Conformity is not always a negative

experience. CONDITIONS FOR GROUPS TO OUTPERFORM INDIVIDUALS What is social loafing? It is the tendency of a group member to exert less effort on a task when working in a group than when working individually. Social loafing is displayed by: Missing meetings

Showing up late Performing and participating in a lackluster manner Failing to start or complete tasks GROUP VERSUS INDIVIDUAL PERFORMANCE Group Superior to Individual Conditions Reason(s)

Broad-range task Pool knowledge, group remembering Synergy Neither have expertise Experts, complex task Individual expert,

informed group Share the load, teamwork Error correction, synergy GROUP VERSUS INDIVIDUAL PERFORMANCE CONTINUED Individual Superior to Group

Conditions Reason(s) Individual expert, uninformed group Groups establish mediocrity norms Pooling ignorance,

negative energy Insufficient motivation to excel Group becomes to large Simple task Time is a critical factor Difficulty coordinating, social loafing

Minimal resources required Groups too slow NEWCOMERS AND GROUP DEVELOPMENT Several characteristics of a group directly affect the acceptance of a newcomer: Level of group development Level of group performance

The number of members The degree of turnover CASE STUDY MEMBER DIVERSITY AND GROUP DEVELOPMENT Read the case study on page 105 in your text. Questions for Thought 1.Why does the Twenty Percent Rule work to

diminish discrimination against minorities and women? 2.How important do you think it is to have a diverse group membership? Is there any connection to group synergy? Explain. The Four Seasons VIDEO CASE STUDY The Four Seasons

VIDEO CASE STUDY The Four Seasons VIDEO CASE STUDY Bulworth VIDEO CASE STUDY

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