Guided Notes on Introduction to Science Pages 11-19 in Earth Science Book
A scientific method is a planned, organized approach to solving a problem. List the steps in the scientific method: 1. Identifying the problem
2. Researching the problem 3. A hypothesis is made * A hypothesis is an explanation for an observation in nature. It is not an educated guess. Scientists do not just make a guess.
4. Hypothesis is tested by conducting an experiment. 5. All data are carefully recorded.
6. Data must be formatted so that it can be analyzed. 7. A conclusion is drawn. A good experiment tests
only one variable or changeable factor at a time. Define the 3 bold print words from page 12
Independent variable: the factor manipulated by the experimenter. Dependent variable: a factor
that can change if the independent variable is changed Control: shows that the results of an experiment are a
result of the condition being tested. Sometimes, during the process of investigating one problem, an experimenter might encounter a
different problem and choose to pursue the new problem. A measurement includes both a number that identifies how many units of measure there
are, and the unit itself. Define and describe the standard system of units for measurement Systeme Internationale d Unites:
also known as the modern metric system. It uses the number 10 as the base unit. Abbreviated as SI In the chart below, define and give the standard SI unit(s) for these measurements:
Length Definition: distance between 2 points SI Unit: meter Weight
Definition: gravitational force on an object SI Unit: Newton
Mass Definition: amount of matter in an object SI Unit: Kilogram
Area Definition: amount of surface in a set of boundaries
SI Unit: Square Meters Volume Definition: amount of space
occupied by an object SI Unit: cubic meter Density
Definition: amount of matter that occupies a given space SI Unit: Grams per cubic centimeter Time
Definition: interval between 2 events SI Unit: Second Temperature
Definition: Average vibrations of the particles that make up a material SI Unit: C/Kelvin
Explain why scientific notation is used and how it works To conveniently express very
large or very small numbers A number is expressed as a number between 1 and 10 and multiplied by a power of 10 Why do scientists communicate their results with others?
It allows others to learn of new discoveries, verify results, and conduct further experiments. What is the purpose of a student lab report?
To demonstrate to the teacher your understanding of the experiments or to compare your results with other students Define THEORY and LAW and
state how they differ from each other
Theory- explanation based on many observations during repeated experiments (the simplest explanation) Law- a basic fact that describes the behavior of a natural phenomenon even if the cause is unknown Theories are often used to explain
Where does Utilitarianism come from? Hedonism. To think objectively and face up to an undesirable action for the sake of a better consequence. That pleasure is the highest good and only true aim of human life
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