# Guided Notes on Introduction to Science Guided Notes on Introduction to Science Pages 11-19 in Earth Science Book

A scientific method is a planned, organized approach to solving a problem. List the steps in the scientific method: 1. Identifying the problem

2. Researching the problem 3. A hypothesis is made * A hypothesis is an explanation for an observation in nature. It is not an educated guess. Scientists do not just make a guess.

4. Hypothesis is tested by conducting an experiment. 5. All data are carefully recorded.

6. Data must be formatted so that it can be analyzed. 7. A conclusion is drawn. A good experiment tests

only one variable or changeable factor at a time. Define the 3 bold print words from page 12

Independent variable: the factor manipulated by the experimenter. Dependent variable: a factor

that can change if the independent variable is changed Control: shows that the results of an experiment are a

result of the condition being tested. Sometimes, during the process of investigating one problem, an experimenter might encounter a

different problem and choose to pursue the new problem. A measurement includes both a number that identifies how many units of measure there

are, and the unit itself. Define and describe the standard system of units for measurement Systeme Internationale d Unites:

also known as the modern metric system. It uses the number 10 as the base unit. Abbreviated as SI In the chart below, define and give the standard SI unit(s) for these measurements:

Length Definition: distance between 2 points SI Unit: meter Weight

Definition: gravitational force on an object SI Unit: Newton

Mass Definition: amount of matter in an object SI Unit: Kilogram

Area Definition: amount of surface in a set of boundaries

SI Unit: Square Meters Volume Definition: amount of space

occupied by an object SI Unit: cubic meter Density

Definition: amount of matter that occupies a given space SI Unit: Grams per cubic centimeter Time

Definition: interval between 2 events SI Unit: Second Temperature

Definition: Average vibrations of the particles that make up a material SI Unit: C/Kelvin

Explain why scientific notation is used and how it works To conveniently express very

large or very small numbers A number is expressed as a number between 1 and 10 and multiplied by a power of 10 Why do scientists communicate their results with others?

It allows others to learn of new discoveries, verify results, and conduct further experiments. What is the purpose of a student lab report?

To demonstrate to the teacher your understanding of the experiments or to compare your results with other students Define THEORY and LAW and

state how they differ from each other

Theory- explanation based on many observations during repeated experiments (the simplest explanation) Law- a basic fact that describes the behavior of a natural phenomenon even if the cause is unknown Theories are often used to explain

laws