Gy 111 Concepts

Gy 111 Concepts

GY 112 HISTORICAL GEOLOGY What does Historical Geology deal with? Earths origin and evolution Changes in the distribution of lands and seas,

Growth and reduction of mountains, and Succession of animals and plants through time Why is Historical Geology important? The present is the key to the past: It allows us to learn from past mistakes and make plans

for the future It provides insight into catastrophic events occurring in the past that resulted in mass extinctions and climatic changes, and It helps to explain the formation and location of natural resources such as fossil fuels, minerals, and energy resources

Three Great Themes in Earth History Deep Time Evolution of Earths Nonliving Features Evolution of Earths Life REVIEW OF


Time Universe Age: 13.82 Billion Years Earth Age: 4.54 Billion Years EARTH FORMATION Universe Organization Universe Galaxies

Stars Solar Systems Planets Moons Asteroids Meteoroids EARTH FORMATION

Earths Stages of Development Stage 1 Initial Formation (Molten State, Moon Formation) Hadean Eon (4.52 4.2 bya) Stage 2 Lithosphere (Land), Hydrosphere (Water), Atmosphere (Air) Archean Eon (4.2 2.5 bya) Stage 3 Ancient Life (Oxygen Poor Environment) - Microbes Proterozoic (2.5 0.542 bya) Stage 4 Modern Life (Oxygen Introduced) Our present time

Phanerozoic (0.542 bya Present) EARTHS CHARACTERISTICS Subsurface Features Compositional Layers Crust (silicon/oxygen) Mantle (magnesium) Core (nickle/iron)

Structural Layers Lithosphere (Solid) Asthenosphere (Putty) Mesosphere (Solid) Outer Core (Liquid) Inner Core (Solid)

EARTHS CHARACTERISTICS Surface Features Geomorphology Mountains Landforms Deserts Karst Topography Valleys Beaches

Etc. EARTHS COMPOSITION Chemistry Silicon & Oxygen (2 major elements) Minerals Rocks Classified based on composition and texture

Soil Note: Minerals and rocks can be considered nonliving fossils, providing clues as to the location and processes involved in their formation. EARTHS PROCESSES Constructive Processes Mountain Building (Referred to as Orogenic Events)

Volcanism Earthquakes Destructive Processes Weathering & Erosion EARTHS MECHANISMS Plate Tectonics

Responsible for Earthquakes, Volcanism, and Orogenic Events. Involves the creation and recycling of Earths Crustal Material THE END

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