Hazardous Wastes Introduction

Hazardous Wastes Introduction

Chapter 6.7 Transitional technologies TRP Chapter 6.7 1 Evolution of a hazardous waste management system INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS LEGISLATION IMPLEMENTATION & ENFORCEMENT

FACILITIES SUPPORT SERVICES STAKEHOLDERS Source: David C Wilson 1993, 1999 TRP Chapter 6.7 2 How to begin developing a hazardous waste management system?

First: Understand how HWM systems are put together Compare and contrast different national approaches Understand the existing local system Then: Choose the best of the rest from around the world Adapt these to local needs and circumstances Build a unique local system TRP Chapter 6.7 3 How easy will the journey be for a developing economy?

Advantage: ability to learn from experience and mistakes of industrialised countries in last 20-25 years Disadvantages: lack of funds lack of awareness lack of skills lack of infrastructure TRP Chapter 6.7 4 The implementation conundrum

No hazardous waste treatment facilities = no controls over hazardous waste generators No controls = no waste to treatment facilities High costs exacerbate problem eg Hong Kong facility cost >US $150 million Finance: beyond capacity of most governments in developing economies needs to come from private sector or international lending body needs government assurance TRP Chapter 6.7 5

Taking the first steps Long lead time: timeframe between recognising problem and having treatment and disposal facility for hazardous wastes is 5-10 years Need to win political support for: imposing extra burden on industry siting facility carrying out EIA

obtaining planning permission dealing with local opposition (not-in-my-back-yard or NIMBY syndrome) It is better to do something now than to investigate for too long TRP Chapter 6.7 6 Useful first steps

Document and quantify problem Designate and train responsible staff Control water pollution and solid wastes Introduce interim treatment/disposal measures Address early measures for waste minimisation Raise public/political awareness Obtain appropriate independent advice TRP Chapter 6.7 7 Transitional Technologies used by

industrialised countries 1 Source: David C Wilson 1993 TRP Chapter 6.7 8 Transitional technologies used by industrialised countries 2 No longer available: dumping at sea incineration at sea export to developed countries for treatment and disposal - increasingly more difficult under the terms of the Basel Convention

co-disposal of hazardous wastes with municipal solid wastes already banned in many countries being phased out under the terms of EU Landfill Directive TRP Chapter 6.7 9 Advantages of transitional technologies

Identification of waste generators Raised awareness Improved information for planning Experience for managers and control staff Reduced temptation to dispose improperly TRP Chapter 6.7 10 Overcoming the disadvantages of transitional technologies

Set firm deadlines on use Segregate wastes Control after-use Maintain good operational control Keep records Ban imports TRP Chapter 6.7 11 Examples of transitional technologies

1 Short term measures Export Encapsulation Solar evaporation TRP Chapter 6.7 12 Examples of transitional technologies 2 Low cost longer term measures Waste avoidance and minimisation Simple chemical treatment Fuel blending for cement kiln incineration TRP Chapter 6.7 13

Examples of transitional technologies 3 Medium term measures Co-combustion in existing furnaces Co-disposal in municipal solid waste landfill sites Simple cement-based solidification TRP Chapter 6.7 14 Early measures for waste minimisation

TRP Chapter 6.7 15 Source: David C Wilson 1993 Export (to a developed country) Only acceptable: In the short term On a small scale To properly managed and operated high tech facilities Example: PCBs for high temperature incineration from Middle East to UK TRP Chapter 6.7 16

Encapsulation Short term option only Suitable for high hazard waste Pack securely in metal drums Cast in fours in metal drums Label, keep records TRP Chapter 6.7 17

Solar evaporation Useful for drying aqueous sludges Use depends on climate and season Strictly as short term option, in isolated areas under controlled conditions, has been used for small quantities of volatile organic solvents eg Arabian desert TRP Chapter 6.7 18 Co-combustion in existing industrial furnaces

Beware air pollution problems Do not use in domestic boilers Do not use in cooking Use in industrial boilers with care Best option is use in cement kiln TRP Chapter 6.7 19

Co-disposal Controlled mixing of selected hazardous wastes in sanitary landfill Aims at biodegradation of organic constituents in hazardous waste Can also attentuate concentrations of non-organic constituents Requirements: Proper sanitary landfill for MSW Good management and control Restricted range of acceptable wastes Restricted loading rates TRP Chapter 6.7 20

Cement-based solidification Source: David C Wilson 1990 TRP Chapter 6.7 21 Cement-based solidification case studies Brisbane, Australia: Simple solidification in clay cells at a landfill site facility in operation since 1982 solidification of liquid hazardous wastes with fly ash and cement kiln dust wastes treated in clay cells in a separate area at landfill

Cape Town, South Africa: Incorporation of tetraethyl lead (TEL) sludges in concrete special precautions to protect workers blended concrete used for road on landfill site process carried out during dry summer months TRP Chapter 6.7 22 Simple physico-chemical treatment Physico-chemical treatment is part of a long-term solution Technologies are simple and cost-effective Easy to operate and maintain Simplest plants use batch operation

GOOD TRAINING AND SUPERVISION ARE ESSENTIAL TRP Chapter 6.7 23 Simple physico-chemical treatment - case study Bangkok treatment facility Source: David C Wilson TRP Chapter 6.7 24

Co-combustion in cement kilns Can be used as interim treatment method while dedicated waste treatment facilities being developed, as well as a long term solution Useful in countries with established cement industry, operational cement kilns Offers reduced fuel costs for cement production Large capacity Suited for various waste types Constraints: lack of trained personnel concerns of cement kiln operators

cost and sophistication of trial burns lack of detailed technical data on each facility anxiety about accident risks about accident risks TRP Chapter 6.7 25 How to move from transitional solutions to long term ones Ensure the use of short and medium term solutions are brought to an end by imposing a time limit Tighten permit conditions gradually Use landfill fees to fund new technologies Make sure the public is aware of the issues

Landfill has a strategic role during the transition TRP Chapter 6.7 26 Chapter 6.7 Summary Developing an integrated hazardous waste management system is complex, takes time, money and political support Developing economies have advantages and disadvantages, but need to start somewhere Transitional technologies offer solutions but have drawbacks Some are short term, some medium term

Some longer term, but low cost Need to move gradually from transitional technolgies to long term ones TRP Chapter 6.7 27

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