Head to Head Movement Deriving word orders that X-bar theory cant account for. A Problem with X-bar X-bar theory requires that nothing may intervene between a head and its complement (by definition). Direct objects are the complements of verbs 9% of the worlds languages exhibit VSO order V S O Phg Mire an lucharachn Kissed Mary the leprechaun Mary kissed the leprechaun The subject (a specifier) intervenes between the V and its complement.
You cant draw a tree like this! Try it! A new kind of rule Transformation: A rule that moves something around in the sentence Affix lowering Subject/Aux Inversion Well use transformations to account for word order paradoxes like VSO order. The first transformation well look at is head-tohead movement. (Moving a head into a head: Actually a class of rules: 2 cases here) French Adverbs Adverbs are adjuncts But adverbs in French appear between the verbal head and the object (complement) Je mange souvent des pommes I eat
often the apples I often eat apples Compare: I often eat apples *I eat often apples. V adv Obj adv V Obj English Adverbs TP NP I T
T VP If the verb appears before the adverb in French, where does it attach? V AdvP often V eat V
NP apples French vs. English Adverbs a) Je I mange souvent des pommes eat apples b) I c) J I
b) I often often eat apples ai souvent mang des pommes have often
eaten apples have often eaten apples T verb appears here when T is filled Verb appears here when
no overt auxiliary conclusion: tensed V in French is in T English Negation TP NP I T do T NegP Neg Neg not VP V
eat NP apples French vs. English Negation a) Je ne-mange pas des pommes I eat not
apples b) I do not eat apples c) Je nai pas mang des pommes
I have not eaten apples have not eaten apples b) I T verb appears here when
T is filled Verb appears here when no overt auxiliary conclusion: tensed V in French is in T Verb Raising VT TP TP NP Je NP T T
Je VP AdvP T V NegP Neg Neg pas V
souvent V mange T NP des pommes VP V mange NP des pommes Verb raising is motivated by the Tense suffixes! In English, T lowers to attach suffixes to the verb. In French, the verb raises to T to get the suffix on
the verb The verb raising parameter: Verbs raise to T OR T lowers to V. Verb Raising in Vata a) a la saka li we have rice eaten We have eaten rice b) a li saka we eat rice We eat rice Data from Koopman 1984 Verb Subject Object Order 1) T Mire ag-pgil an lucharachn
Is Mary ing kiss the leprechaun Mary is kissing the leprechaun 2) Phg Mire an lucharachn kissed Mary the leprechaun Mary kissed the leprechaun Tensed verbs and Auxiliaries in Irish show positional alternations just like Vata and French. Problem: How do you get the subject after T? VP internal Subject hypothesis: Subjects are generated in the specifier of VP I T VP Subj V V
Obj Problem: How do you get the subject before T in French?? Subjects in French and English (but NOT Irish) raise from spec VP to spec TP (the reasons will be discussed in the next chapter) TP T T VP Subj V V Obj
Summary of V to T X-bar theory cant generate V adv O order or VSO order Observation: These orders dont show overt auxiliaries Verb raises to T around negation, adverbs, and VP internal subjects. Verb movement is motivated by inflectional suffixes. English doesnt show verb movement, Verb Raising parameter. Another instance of head movement: TC Subject Aux Inversion: You have squeezed the Charmin Have you squeezed the Charmin? Complementizer question particles in Irish
An bhfaca t an madra Q See you the dog did you see the dog T to C movement T raises to C[+Q] to fill the null head CP C C TP [+Q]+have NP you T
T thave VP T to C Evidence: subject/aux inversion not allowed with an embedded Q complementizer I asked have you squeezed the Charmin I asked whether you have squeezed the Charmin *I asked whether have you squeezed the Charmin. Interaction between V to T and T to C In French, both main verbs and auxiliaries are in T. Prediction: both main verbs and auxiliaries will undergo T to C: Avez-vous Mang des pommes?
have-you eaten the apples Mangez vous des pommes? Eat you the apples CP C TP Subj T T VP V ... Interaction between V to T and T to C In English, only auxiliaries are in T. Prediction:
only auxiliaries will undergo T to C: Have you eaten the apples? *Eat you the apples? CP C TP Subj T T VP V ... Do Support I have eaten the apples Have you eaten the apples?
I ate the apples *Ate you the apples? Did you eat the apples? Where does this do thing come from??? Also appears in negation I eat apples I do not eat apples Do Support Do Insertion When there is no other option for supporting inflectional affixes, insert the dummy verb do into T. 1) T cant both lower to V and raise to C -- so it appears in questions 2) For some reason, Negation blocks Affix lowering. Summary Word Orders not produced by X-bar (VSO,
VadvO, V Neg O) are generated by head to head movement. V to T: motivated by the need for T to be pronounced V to T alternates with Affix lowering (parameter) VSO order results from a conspiracy of V to T and VP internal subjects Summary Subject Aux Inversion involves T to C movement. T to C movement motivated by need to pronounce [+Q] Complementizer (evidence: overt complementizers block T to C) T to C and V to T interact. Do support triggered when T cant be supported any other way.
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