History and Government of Canada Colonization -During the 1500-1600s, French explorers claimed much of Canada -Called their settlements New France
-British explorers also colonized parts of Canada along the Atlantic coast -By the 1700s, led to a country with two distinct cultures: Roman Catholic French and Protestant English Colonization -1791: the British government
split the country into two provinces -Upper Canada: majority English speaking -Lower Canada: majority speaking French
-province: a political unit (similar to a state) Growth and Expansion -Quebec City, Montreal, and Toronto developed as major cities -1885: railroad between Montreal and Vancouver was completed -The two coasts of Canada
were linked -About a decade later, gold was discovered in Northwest Canada Expansion -Most development and industry in Canada takes place within 100 miles of the United States border
-Climate is warmer -Land is more fertile -Transportation between the two coasts is more available Government -Gained independence from Great Britain in 1931
-Parliamentary Government: government of Canada, legislative and executive functions are combined in a legislature called a parliament -Prime Minister: majority partys leader in Parliament, head of the government -Each of the 10 provinces has their own legislature
Stephen Harper, Canada s Prime Minister Economy, Culture, and
Subregions of Canada Economy -Canadas biggest industries: farming, logging, mining, and fishing -No other country exports more wood pulp and paper products
-Coastlines on the Pacific, Atlantic, and Arctic Oceans create many opportunities for fishing Economy -Importance of the manufacturing industry -Cars, steel, electronics, and
household appliances are the most manufactured items -Service industries: employ more Canadians than all other industries combined -Examples: finance, transportation, tourism, real Culture
-First inhabitants of Canada: the Inuit people and the First Nations people -First Nations: Canadas Native American people -Over 700,000 First Nations people live in Canada -Concentrated mostly in and British Columbia
Ontario -mtis: people of mixed French and native heritage Culture -Many members of the First Nations tribes live on more than 2,300 reserves
throughout Canada -reserves: public land set aside by the government -Inuit people live in areas in the remote Arctic north Culture -The majority of Canadian citizens live in urban areas such as
Montreal, Toronto, and Vancouver -Canada is officially a bilingual country -Majority speak English, minority speak French -Only in Quebec are French speakers the majority Culture
-Inuit carvings: animals and scenes from everyday life made from soapstone, ivory, and whalebone Culture -First Nations Totem Poles: Created to commemorate ancestry, events, and history
Subregions of Canada -Four subregions of Canada: -Atlantic Provinces -Core Provinces -Prairie Provinces -Pacific Province and the Territories Atlantic Provinces
-Consists of: -Prince Edward Island -New Brunswick -Nova Scotia -New Brunswick -Contains just 8% of Canadas population -Industries: logging, mining, fishing
Core Provinces -Consists of: -Quebec -Ontario -60% of Canadians live in either Quebec or Ontario -The political and economic centers of Canada
Prairie Provinces -Consists of: -Manitoba -Saskatchewan -Alberta -Known as Canadas Breadbasket -Produces 50% of Canadas agricultural production
Pacific Province and the Territories -Consists of: -British Columbia -Yukon Territory -Northwest Territories -Nunavut -Largest populations are in southwest British Columbia (Vancouver)
-Yukon Territory: population of 34,000 -Northwest Territories: population of 43,500
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