HOPE IN HARD TIMES Based on a traveling exhibit of the Montana Historical Society Guest curated by Mary Murphy, Michael P. Malone Professor of History, Montana State University Bess Harshbarger was one of the fifteen children that made up the Harshbarger household in 1937 (later, there would be two more). All of the children did chores around the house and farm, including caring for their
younger siblings. Russell Lee, Bess Harshbarger, Nine Years Old, Sheridan County, November 1937 Montana in the Great Depression We didnt miss any meals, but we had a number that was kind of skinny. Doris Gribble, Helena In 1931, John Hauge wrote to Governor John Erickson from Paradise, Montana: Im taking the liberty of writing you to see if there is anything you can possible [sic] do for the unemployed people of Sanders County. Work is what they want not dole. The world owes no man a living, but it certainly
owes all of its people a chance to make a living. FSA photographers frequently focused on rural children in an effort to drum up public support for New Deal relief programs. A decade of hard times and high unemployment caused Americans to fear what effect inadequate diet, erratic schooling, and a future of joblessness might have on the countrys youth.
Russell Lee, Jim Harshbarger, Five Years Old, Sheridan County, November 1937 By 1930 more than a thousand Mexicans and Mexican Americans, recruited by the Great Western and Holly Sugar companies, worked in the sugar beet fields of the lower Yellowstone Valley. Families lived in makeshift dwellings, like this modified railroad refrigerator car, and children labored alongside
their parents hoeing, thinning, weeding, pulling, and topping the beets. Arthur Rothstein, Sugar Beet Workers Children, Treasure County, June 1939 My father had 320 acres. But Eastern Montana is not the kind of country that should ever have been plowed up.Mary Frances Alexander McDorney, Missoula You didnt have any rain for, Christ, very little for years. A big cloud would come up, I can remember, big clouds come up and youd think, boy this is gonna be a good one. All it was [was] dust.Wallace Lockie, Miles City In the 30s you couldnt give nothing away. Nobody had any money. Well, you could buy a set of overalls for 25 cents and nobody had 25 cents. But we stayed clean. Thats one thing that we did. We were poor
but we were clean and poor. If our overalls were patched it was clean patching. People were proud.Wallace Lockie, Miles City At noon it was just like before the sun goes downtwilight, thats the way it was at noon . . . it was just a glitter of grasshopper wings. Ethel George, Kinsey After drought drove the Evans family off their South Dakota farm, Vernon Evans was photographed near Missoula en route to Oregon, where the family had heard there was grass up to the cows belly, and there
was fruit free for the picking. Arthur Rothstein, Drought Victims Heading to Oregon, Near Missoula, July 1936 The Harshbarger home had been built to house chickens, but after it was completed, Mrs. Harshbarger decided that it would be warmer than their homestead cabin, so the family moved into this twenty-four-footsquare, one-room
building. Russell Lee, John and Mayree Harshbarger and Their Family, Sheridan County, November 1937 Hordes of Mormon crickets infested eastern Montana between 1936 and 1941. Farmers defended their crops from the invaders by building metal barriers around grain fields to stop their march and then dusting the insects with poison to kill them.
Arthur Rothstein, Cleaning a Cricket Trap, Big Horn County, June 1939 Grasshoppers by the jillions. Ate up the fence posts. . . . I dont tell the other people too much about it anymore because they think Im lying. It was terrible. It really was. It never rained at all, you know.Wallace Lockie, Miles City As long as you had land, you could get things on time in town and we got along better then. . . . My father could make something out of almost nothing.Edith McKamey, Great Falls They were just starving to death there because there was no grass, there was no hay, and they couldnt raise grain because it was so dry.C. Max Hughes, Miles City Unlike those working in some other western
states, of the four FSA photographers assigned to Montana, Wolcott was the only one to document the effect of the Depression of Montanas Native American communities. Marion Post Wolcott, Cheyenne Indians Home, Near Lame Deer, August 1941 Work and home were never very far apart in Butte, as this
photograph of a little girl playing in the refuse- strewn alley next to the Original Mine demonstrates. Arthur Rothstein, Copper Mine in Town, Butte, June 1939 George Whitmarsh wanted a circus, so he built his own circus wagons in the town of Archer in Sheridan County. Whitmarsh had a calliope and, while
he never managed to acquire a collection of wild animals, he did display a neighbors St. Bernard. Russell Lee, Circus Wagons Made by Mr. George Whitmarsh, Archer, Sheridan County, November 1937 Crews of sheep shearers traveled throughout the West, wielding their shears in the sheds of the regions woolgrowers. These sheepshearers are using electric cutters that had
become common by the early 1910s. One worker uses a belt to brace himself during the grueling day bent over grasping sheep and shears. Arthur Rothstein, Shearing Sheep, Rosebud County, June 1939 After washing up and combing their hair, sheepshearers sat down for a dinner of meat, potatoes, coffee, and pie. Like
harvest and roundup, shearing was a laborintensive period for male hands and the women who cooked for them. Arthur Rothstein, Sheepshearers at Dinner, Rosebud County, June 1939 The New Deal and the FSA Our family thought that Roosevelt was a regular god because he really saved the day for all of us. Donald Morrow, Helena Montanans demonstrated
their support for the New Deal and Democratic politicians by naming businesses and even towns in their honor. Butte had the New Deal Bar, and some Fort Peck Dam workers lived in the Hamlets of New Deal and Wheeler, the latter named for Montanas influential senator, Burton K. Wheeler. John Vachon, The New Deal Cash Grocery, Judith Gap, March 1942
The photographers often traveled to FSA farms to document the hardworking men and women who had borrowed from the program to buy land and equipment. The portrait of this woman in her print dress, calico apron, and lined face was typical of the FSA photos of farm women. John Vachon, Mrs. Ballinger, Wife of an FSA Borrower, Flathead Valley, March 1942 In the 30s, well, there was just no money anywhere, you know, and everybody was happy just to have a job to go
on.Thelma Stearns Bondy, Fort Peck I can remember the year of 36, [my sister] gave me a pair of snow pants for Christmas that year. The money she saved from her working on the NYA [National Youth Administration] to buy me that pair of snow pants which was $5.00. . . .That was really a wonderful thing for me to have to wear to school because I had to walk and it was cold in the wintertime and they were nice and warm.Elizabeth Phelps, Sidney My dad. . . wouldnt go on WPA. But when he smashed his arm up, then Mother went down and got on WPA. Julia June Chitwood Trees, Fishtail Work was a central theme of the FSA photographs since the agency sought to demonstrate
that recipients of New Deal assistance were workers, not slackers. Mr. Bailey, with his boots, gloves, worn coat, patched pants, True Temper pitchfork, and resolute expression was a good advertisement of an FSA farmer. John Vachon, Mr. Bailey, FSA Borrower, Flathead Valley, March 1942 This photograph captures a moment in small town life as men
seated on packing crates visited in front of the mercantile. The store sold necessities Copenhagen tobacco and overallsas well as luxuries: a bunch of bananas is just visible hanging inside the window. Arthur Rothstein, The General Store, Pony, June 1939
Inaugurated in 1904 to display the Crows agricultural produce, over the years Crow Fair became a time for the Crows to gather together, to parade in elaborately beaded outfits, to dance, and to show their prowess in horse races and rodeos. Marion Post Wolcott, Indians Watching Crow Fair, Crow Agency, August 1941
The FSA resettled drought-stricken farmers from eastern Montana onto irrigated homesteads in the Fairfield Bench Farms of Cascade and Teton counties. Here a woman feeds white leghorns outside the new, modern chicken house. Egg and butter money often provided the only steady source of cash on many American farms. Arthur Rothstein, Farm Wife Feeding her Chickens, Fairfield Bench Farms, May 1939 Farm mechanization increased during the
Depression, with the FSA loaning money for tractors. By 1940, 47.6 percent of Montana farms used tractors although only 28 percent of the states farms had electricity. Arthur Rothstein, A Farm Couple and Their International Harvester Tractor, Fairfield Bench Farms, May 1939 I know that you and I share an urge alike, that is, a desire to photograph the whole United States at once. Have a feeling that if we don't do it this year, it may blow away
by next year. FSA Director Roy Stryker to photographer Russell Lee Seeking to document the traditional as well as the modern aspects of small American towns like Fairfield, the photographer framed the water pump in front of the Drink Coca-Cola sign on the local pool parlor and barber shop. Arthur Rothstein, Pool Parlor, Fairfield, May 1939
FSA photographers took hundreds of pictures of billboards and signs in order to capture the flavor of American culture in the 1930s and 1940s. This whimsical painting portrays a man in town and country style. Interestingly, the cowboys jeans are more densely covered with graffiti than are the gentlemans trousers. John Vachon, Clothing Store Advertisement, Dillon, March 1942
Whenever they asked me, What are you doing out here taking pictures? I said, Well, I'm taking pictures of the history of today. Russell Lee, FSA Photographer In 1941 Marion Post Wolcott accompanied a group of dudes from the Quarter Circle U ranch to Crow Fair. Her photos from
that excursion are the only pictures of Indians taken by an FSA photographer in Montana. Marion Post Wolcott, Indians Going to Crow Fair, Near Crow Agency, September 1941 One of the main topics of the FSA photographers in Montana was the cattle business. In
this picture Arthur Rothstein extends the range of his assignment to include one of the many Stockman bars in Montana and the male visiting that took place in and outside of them. Arthur Rothstein, Men in Front of the Stockman Bar on Main Street, Miles City, June 1939 This Farm Security Administration was not an art project, it was an anti-art project, it was not the
intention to produce pretty pictures. It was the intention to produce living documents which would prove to the citizens of the United States that a percentage of their fellow citizens, through no fault of their own, had no land to till, they had no way to live, not only because of the great depression, but also because of the dust bowl. However, out of that came some very great art. Beaumont Newhall, Photographer I was a provincial New Yorker. I was born right in the middle of Manhattan . . . went to school in New York City and I even went to college in New York City. . . . It was a wonderful opportunity to be able to travel around the country and see what the rest of the United States was like.
Arthur Rothstein, FSA Photographer All the photographers commented on the isolation and distances of Montana. Arthur Rothstein once wrote to his boss: The trouble with working out here is that you have to travel so far to get anywhere.
Marion Post Wolcott, Sign at a Crossroads, Pointing to Nearest Telephone (near Birney), August 1941 Like many ranches in Montana, the Quarter Circle U began taking in dudes in the 1920s to buffer the sagging cattle business. For many Montana ranches, dudes provided the means of preserving their stockraising business. FSA photographers recorded both the work of cowboys and the play of dudes in
the Treasure State. Arthur Rothstein, Branding a Calf During the Roundup, Quarter Circle U Ranch, Rosebud County, June 1939 The romance of the West was one of the major selling points of dude ranches in the 1920s and 1930s. As one guest at the Quarter Circle U reported, in addition to attending a rodeo
and having a chance to participate in a roundup, there were pretty girls Marion Post Wolcott, Dudes in a Covered Wagon Seat Quarter to be talked with. Circle U Ranch, Rosebud County, August 1941 Prohibition was long gone when Arthur Rothstein visited Montana. Both he and fellow FSA photographer Marion Post Wolcott
photographed dudes from the Quarter Circle U ranch drinking and dancing in a bar in nearby Birney. Arthur Rothstein, Dudes Harmonizing in the Back Room of the Beer Parlor Birney, June 1939 I stop to take a picture of a guy along the road because he's wearing a big hat. John Vachon, FSA Photographer I ran into a Go Western parade at Billings. People out here are becoming colorful and toughthe frontier spirit is rampant. Some of the men around here now use sulphuric acid as an
after-shaving lotion and the rattlesnakes are all carrying antitetanus serum, just in case they might bite one of the local boys. Arthur Rothstein, FSA Photographer I worked very early in the morning, & very late a couple of evenings, too, trying to get the weird, strange, quality & feeling that a human sometimes has in seeing mountains & being on top of the world & not exactly a part of it any more.Marion Post Wolcott, FSA Photographer Vachon drove his Plymouth into Beaverhead County in the spring of 1942 with the assignment of photographing
stock raising. After several days, he wrote to FSA Director Roy Stryker that he had found the purest most undiluted West I've ever seen. John Vachon, Road into Bannack Beaverhead County, April 1942 FSA photographers pictured all phases of grain production and shipment. Here
a switchman perches above the Great Northern emblem that reads See America First Glacier National Park in this photograph of a train and grain elevator in Great Falls. Marion Post Wolcott, Grain Elevator and Great Northern Freight Train Great Falls, August 1941 FSA photographers
struggled to portray the vast expanses of Montana. Here, Arthur Rothstein used the grain elevator, railroad crossing sign, and lone cow to punctuate this scene of long land and big sky. Arthur Rothstein, Grain Elevators on Sheffelss Wheat Farm, Cascade County, May 1939 Butte miners had
worked under an open shop for twenty years. With the support of the 1933 National Industrial Recovery Act, which gave workers the right to organize and bargain collectively, the miners reorganized the Butte Miners Union, Local No. 1 of the International Union of Mine, Mill, and Smelterworkers. Here they meet under the Russell Lee, Miners Union Meeting, Butte, October 1942
benevolent gaze of F.D.R. Producing goods for the war effort required enormous amounts of electricity, and demand for copper wire for electrical transmission skyrocketed. Copper towns, plagued with unemployment in the 1930s, begged for workers in the 1940s.
Russell Lee, Anaconda Wire and Cable Co., Great Falls, September 1942 On assignment in 1942 to photograph Montanas war-time copper production, Russell Lee took dozens of photographs of the copper industry back in full swing in Butte, Anaconda, and Great Falls. Here molten copper is cast into anodes, which would be shipped to Great Falls for refining.
Russell Lee, Anaconda Copper Mining Co. Smelter, Anaconda, September 1942 FSA photographers took pictures in more than 50 towns, in 40 of Montanas 56 counties. Shown on the map are the communities in which they photographed. Most often they also photographed scenes of farms, ranches, and other rural locales as well. These sites are not located by name on the map, but every county visited is highlighted. Places located on the map: Beaverhead County Bannack, Dewey, Dillon, Jackson, Wisdom Big Horn County Crow Agency, Wyola Broadwater County Cascade County Great Falls, Neihart, Portage Chouteau County Carter, Highwood, Loma Crow Indian Reservation
Custer County Miles City Dawson County Glendive Deer Lodge County Anaconda Fergus County Lewistown Flathead County Glacier National Park, Kalispell Gallatin County Bozeman, Three Forks Garfield County Edwards, Jordan, Sand Springs Glacier County Glacier National Park Granite County Philipsburg Hill County Havre, Laredo Judith Basin County Lewis and Clark County Helena Madison County Pony, Sheridan, Virginia City McCone County Circle, Brockway Places located on the map, cont.:
Meagher County Missoula County Missoula Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation Park County Powder River County Broadus Powell County Prairie County Terry Ravalli County Hamilton, Stevensville Richland County Roosevelt County Froid, Wolf Point Rosebud County Ashland, Birney, Forsyth, Lame Deer Sanders County Plains Sheridan County Antelope, Archer, Homestead, Plentywood, Silver Bow County Butte Stillwater County Mouat Sweet Grass County
Teton County Fairfield Treasure County Hysham Valley County Glasgow, Wheeler Wheatland County Judith Gap Wibaux County Wibaux Yellowstone County Billings
Register your clicker by tapping the . Add a Clicker . option on your . Profile. screen and entering your 8-character clicker ID. TIP: Use your registered clicker or REEF Polling to respond to questions. Either way, if you have...
Boolean Algebra 1854, George Boole created a two valued algebraic system which is now called Boolean algebra. 1938, Claude Shannon adapted Boolean algebra to analyze and describe the behavior of circuits built with relays.
This video demonstrates determining a winner in an election by plurality, borda count, instant run-off, and sequential pairwise voting. With each method, the winner is different, even though thevotes have remained the same.
For example, such a change of conditions can be accomplished by a rapid quench from high to low temperature, below the miscibility gap. This results in the creation of a microstructure of interconnecting domains. These domains grow in order to...
Aprendizaje colaborativo César A. Collazos Santiago, II Semestre 2002 Aprendizaje colaborativo Aprendizaje colaborativo Group Investigation - Estructurados - El profesor presenta una introducción - Los alumnos discuten la unidad - Evaluación y retroalimentación Jigsaw II - Es usado como material...
Origins of World War Summer 1914: The Sequence of Events June 28th - Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand in Sarajevo July 3rd - Kaiser gives 'blank check' to Austria July 23rd - Austrian ultimatum to Serbia July 25th - Austria...
Theatre Vocabulary. Drama. The dramatic tradition which began with primitive people nearly 3000 years ago. ... A story written to be played out on stage. Theatre. The writing or performing of plays or other dramatic works, as well as the...
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!