How do Geopolitics and Critical Geopolitics Help us ...

How do Geopolitics and Critical Geopolitics Help us ...

HOW DO GEOPOLITICS AND CRITICAL GEOPOLITICS HELP US UNDERSTAND THE WORLD? Geopolitics Geopolitics the interplay among geography,

power, politics, and international relations. Classical Geopolitics German School Ex: Ratzels organic state theorythe state resembles a biological organism with a life

cycle, from birth to death. It requires nourishment, and its essential life-giving force is territory---ex. Nazi Germany British / American School Ex: Mackinders Heartland Theory

Mackinders Heartland Theory: Who rules East Europe commands the Heartland Who rules the Heartland commands the World Island Who rules the World Island commands the world Nicholas Spykmans Rimland Theory: Spykman thought that the Rimland, the strip of coastal

land that encircles Eurasia, is more important than the central Asian zone (the so-called Heartland) for the control of the Eurasian continent. Critical Geopolitics Geopoliticians focus on explaining the

underlying spatial assumptions and territorial perspectives of politicians. Politicians are intellectuals of statecraft

They construct ideas about places, these ideas influence and reinforce their political behaviors and policy choices, and these ideas affect how the people process their own notions of places and politics. (pg. 246) Gearoid OTuathail concludes that

American presidents shape Americans Gearoid OTuathail---American intellectuals of statecraft have spatialized politics into a world of us vs. them.

During the Cold War, President Reagan coined the term Evil Empire for the Soviet Union Us versus Them

Terrorists come from diverse places but share a hatred for democracy, a fanatical glorification of violence, and a horrible distortion of their religion, to

justify the murder of innocents. They have made the United States their adversary precisely because of what we stand for and what we stand against.

They [the terrorists] stand against us because we stand in their way. Us versus Them Terrorists come from

diverse places but share a hatred for democracy, a fanatical glorification of violence, and a horrible distortion of their religion, to justify the murder of

innocents. They have made the United States their adversary precisely because of what we President Clinton stand William

for andJ. what we stand against. They [the terrorists] stand against us because we stand in their way. President George W. Bush

Ive said in the past that nations are either with us or against us in the war on terror Geopolitical World Order Temporary periods of stability in how

politics are conducted at the global scale. bi-polartwo world powers-U.S. and Russia during Cold War multi-polarmultiple states, or clusters of states, with power Unilateralism- one state as a superpower (U.S.)

Will individual states remain the dominant actors in a future geopolitical world WHAT ARE SUPRANATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, AND WHAT IS THE FUTURE OF THE STATE? Supranational Organizations

A separate entity composed of three or more states that forge an association and form an administrative structure for mutual benefit in pursuit of shared goals. * Examples: The United Nations and European Union - The League of Nations was the first attempt at modern

Supranationalism which failed. The United Nations

Organization created to replace the League of Nations after WWII. Needed the support of European Nations at the end of WWII. Peacekeeping efforts around the world

Example: Somalia in the 1990s. The country was going through social, political, and economic problems which prompted for UN assistance. Global Scale The United Nations

Regional Scale The European Union EU Explained

Russian bases How the EU works How does Supranationalism affect the State? identities

economics NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement NAFTA Video NAFTA Article

SHAPES OF STATES Shapes of States Microstate= a state or territory that is small in both population and area.

Shapes of States Microstate= a state or territory that is small in both population and area. Fragmented state= a state that is not a

contiguous whole but rather separated parts. Shapes of States

Microstate= a state or territory that is small in both population and area. Fragmented state= a state that is not a contiguous whole but rather separated parts. Elongated state= a state whose territory

is long and narrow in shape. Shapes of States

Microstate= a state or territory that is small in both population and area. Fragmented state= a state that is not a contiguous whole but rather separated parts.

Elongated state= a state whose territory is long and narrow in shape. rectangular state= a state whose territory is rectangular in shape. Shapes of States

Compact state= a state that possesses a roughly circular, oval or rectangular territory in which the distance from the geometric center is relatively equal in all directions. Shapes of States

Compact state= a state that possesses a roughly circular, oval or rectangular territory in which the distance from the geometric center is relatively equal in all directions.

Perforated states= a state whose territory completely surrounds that of another state. Shapes of States

Compact state= a state that possesses a roughly circular, oval or rectangular territory in which the distance from the geometric center is relatively equal in all directions.

Perforated states= a state whose territory completely surrounds that of another state. Landlocked states= a state that is completely surrounded by the land of other states Shapes of States

Prorupted state= a state that exhibits a narrow, elongated land extension leading away from the main territory. Shapes of States

Prorupted state= a state that exhibits a narrow, elongated land extension leading away from the main territory. Exclave= A bounded territory that is part of a particular state but is separated

from it by the territory of a different state. Shapes of States

Prorupted state= a state that exhibits a narrow, elongated land extension leading away from the main territory. Exclave= A bounded territory that is part of a particular state but is separated from it by the territory of a different

state. Enclave= Country surrounded by another country. Elongated Compact

Exclave Indonesia Indonesia: Fragmented Landlocked

Microstate Rectangular Lesotho Lesotho: Enclave

South Africa South Africa: Perforated Videos

Complex Borders Complex Borders 2 Bizarre Borders Bizarre Borders 2

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