Teaching Students to Focus on Learning Rather than Grades: Metacognition is the Key! Innovative Webinar Saundra Educators Yancy McGuire, Ph.D. Retired Asst. Vice Chancellor Professor of Chemistry October 20, & 2010 Director Emerita, Center for Academic Success Louisiana State University Metacognition
The ability to: think about ones own thinking be consciously aware of oneself as a problem solver monitor, plan, and control ones mental processing (e.g. Am I understanding this material, or just memorizing it?) accurately judge ones level of learning know about ones knowledge Flavell, J. H. (1976). Metacognitive aspects of problem solving. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.), The nature of intelligence (pp.231-236). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum Why dont many students know how to learn or how to study? It wasnt necessary in high school Data from UCLA Higher Education Research Institute (HERI First Year Student Survey 2010 - 2014
http://www.heri.ucla.edu/ How do you think most students would answer the following? What did most of your teachers in high school do the day before the test? What did they do during this activity? What grade would you have made on the test if you had gone to class only on the day before the test? Faculty Must Help Students Make the Transition to College Help students identify and close the gap current behavior current grades productive behavior
desired grades Reflection Questions Whats the difference, if any, between studying and learning? For which task would you work harder? A. Make an A on the test B. Teach the material to the class The Story of Two Students Travis, junior psychology student 47, 52, 82, 86 B in course Dana, first year physics student 80, 54, 91, 97, 90 (final) A in course Critical Reading is Essential to Learning Reading skills that can be taught:
Previewing before reading Activating relevant prior knowledge Constructing mental images Self-questioning Comprehension monitoring Summarizing Connecting new material to prior knowledge Quirk, M. (2006), Intuition and Metacognition in Medical Education: Keys to Developing Expertise. New York: Springer Publishing Company, Inc.
A Reading Strategy that Works: SQ3R (4R or 5R) Survey (look at intro, summary, bold print, italicized words, etc.) Question (devise questions survey that you think the reading will answer) Read (one paragraph at a time) Recite (summarize in your own words) Record or wRite (annotate in margins) Review (summarize the information in your words) Reflect (other views, remaining questions) Travis, junior psychology student 47, 52, 82, 86 Problem: Reading Comprehension Solution: Preview text before reading
Develop questions Read one paragraph at a time and paraphrase information First Voyage of Christopher Columbus WITH HOCKED GEMS FINANCING HIM/ OUR HERO BRAVELY DEFIED ALL SCORNFUL LAUGHTER/ THAT TRIED TO PREVENT HIS SCHEME/ YOUR EYES DECEIVE/ HE HAD SAID/ AN EGG/ NOT A TABLE/ CORRECTLY TYPIFIES THIS UNEXPLORED PLANET/ NOW THREE STURDY SISTERS SOUGHT PROOF/ FORGING ALONG SOMETIMES THROUGH CALM VASTNESS/ YET MORE OFTEN OVER TURBULENT PEAKS AND VALLEYS/ DAYS BECAME WEEKS/ AS MANY DOUBTERS SPREAD FEARFUL RUMORS ABOUT THE EDGE/ AT LAST/ FROM NOWHERE/ WELCOME WINGED CREATURES APPEARED/ SIGNIFYING MOMENTOUS SUCCESS Dooling, J.D. and Lachman, R. Effects of Comprehension on Retention of Prose, Journal of Experimental Psychology, (1971), Vol. 88, No. 2, 216-222
Anticipatory set CAN interfere! Lets look at the car on the next slide Is this a 2-door or 4-door car? Dana, first year physics student 80, 54, 91, 97, 90 (final) Problem: Memorizing formulas and using on-line solutions help for problems Solution: Solve problems with no external aids and test mastery of concepts Problem Solving is Essential to Student Success! Homework system that can be taught Study information before looking at the problems/questions
Work example problems (without looking at the solutions) until you get to the answer Check to see if answer is correct If answer is not correct, figure out where mistake was made, without consulting solution Work homework problems/answer questions as if taking a test Why Can Students Make Such a Fast and Dramatic Increase? Its all about the strategies! Counting Vowels in 45 seconds How accurate are you? Count the vowels in the words on the next slide.
Dollar Bill Dice Tricycle Four-leaf Clover Hand Six-Pack Seven-Up Octopus Cat Lives Bowling Pins Football Team Dozen Eggs Unlucky Friday Valentines Day Quarter Hour How many items on the list do you remember?
Lets look at the words again What are they arranged according to? Dollar Bill Dice Tricycle Four-leaf Clover Hand Six-Pack Seven-Up Octopus Cat Lives Bowling Pins Football Team Dozen Eggs
Unlucky Friday Valentines Day Quarter Hour NOW how many items on the list do you remember? What were two major differences between the 1st and 2nd attempts? 1. We knew what the task was 2. We knew how the information was organized An Excellent Introduction Bransford, J.D., Brown, A.L., Cocking, R.R. (Eds.), 2000. How people learn:
Brain, Mind, Experience, and School. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. What we know about learning Active learning is more lasting than passive learning -- Passive learning is an oxymoron* Thinking about thinking is important Metacognition** The level at which learning occurs is important Blooms Taxonomy*** *Cross, Patricia, Opening Windows on Learning League for Innovation in the Community College, June 1998, p. 21. ** Flavell, John, Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive developmental inquiry. American Psychologist, Vol 34(10), Oct 1979, 906-911. *** Bloom Benjamin. S. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Handbook I: The Blooms Taxonomy Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001 http://projects.coe.uga.edu/epltt/index.php?title=Bloom's_Taxonomy
Blooms Taxonomy Making judgments based on criteria and standards through checking and critiquing. This pyramid depicts the different levels of thinking we use when learning. Notice how each level builds on the foundation that precedes it. It is required that we learn the lower levels before we can effectively use the skills above. Creating Evaluatin g Analyzing Carrying out or using a
procedure through executing, or implementing. Applying Understanding Retrieving, recognizing, and recalling relevant knowledge from long-term memory. Putting elements together to form a coherent or functional whole; reorganizing elements into a new pattern or structure through generating, planning, or producing. Breaking material into constituent parts,
determining how the parts relate to one another and to an overall structure . Constructing meaning from oral, written, and graphic messages through interpreting, exemplifying, classifying, summarizing, inferring, comparing, and explaining. Rememberin g http://www.odu.edu/educ/llschult/blooms_taxonomy.htm When we teach students about Blooms Taxonomy They GET it!
How do you think students answered? At what level of Blooms did you have to operate to make As or Bs in high school? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Remembering Understanding Applying Analyzing Evaluating Creating
How students answered (2008) At what level of Blooms did you have to operate to make As or Bs in high school? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Remembering Understanding Applying Analyzing Evaluating Creating 35%
25% 21% 13% 1 2 3 4 3% 3% 5
6 How students answered (2013) At what level of Blooms did you have to operate to make As or Bs in high 44% school? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Remembering
4 5 6 How students answered (2015) At what level of Blooms did you have to operate to make As and Bs in high school? 36% A. B. C. D. E. F.
Remembering Understanding Applying Analyzing Evaluating Creating 27% 18% 14% 5% 0% g g in in r
d e b an st em r m de n Re U Ap ng i y pl
An in yz l a g al Ev g tin a u g tin
a e Cr How do you think students answered? At what level of Blooms do you think youll need to operate to make As in college courses? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Remembering Understanding Applying Analyzing
Evaluating Creating How students answered (in 2008) At what level of Blooms do you think youll need to operate to make an As in college? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Remembering Understanding Applying Analyzing Evaluating
Creating 35% 23% 15% 14% 7% 6% 1 2 3
4 5 6 How students answered (in 2013) At what level of Blooms do you think youll need to operate to make As in college? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Remembering
tin C ng ati e r How do we teach students to move higher on Blooms Taxonomy? Teach them the Study Cycle* *adapted from Frank Christs PLRS system The Study Cycle 4 Reflect Preview Preview before class Skim the chapter, note headings and boldface words, review
summaries and chapter objectives, and come up with questions youd like the lecture to answer for you. 3 Review Attend 4 Reflect Attend class GO TO CLASS! Answer and ask questions and take meaningful notes. Review Review after class As soon after class as possible, read notes, fill in gaps and note any questions. Study Assess
Study Repetition is the key. Ask questions such as why, how, and what if. Intense Study Sessions* - 3-5 short study sessions per day Weekend Review Read notes and material from the week to make connections Assess your Learning Periodically perform reality checks Am I using study methods that are effective? Do I understand the material enough to teach it to others? Intense Study Sessions Innovative Educators Webinar October 20, 2010 1 Set a Goal 2 Study with Focus
30-50 min 3 Reward Yourself 10-15 min 4 Review 1-2 min 5 min Decide what you want to accomplish in your study session
Interact with material- organize, concept map, summarize, process, re-read, fill-in notes, reflect, etc. Take a break call a friend, play a short game, get a snack Go over what you just studied Center for Academic B-31 Coates Hall 225.578.2872 www.cas.lsu.edu Metacognition: An Effective Tool to Promote Success in College Science Learning* Ningfeng Zhao1, Jeffrey Wardeska1, Saundra McGuire2, Elzbieta Cook2 1 Department of Chemistry, East Tennessee State University 2 Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University *March/April 2014 issue of JCST, Vol. 43, No. 4, pages 48-54 Two Valuable References Gabriel, Kathleen F. (2008)
Teaching Unprepared Students. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing Nilson, Linda. (2013) Creating Self-regulated Learners Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing Sharing Strategies that Have Worked for Others Can Be Very Motivational Innovative Educators Webinar October 20, 2010 Top 5 Reasons Students Did Not Do
Well on Test 1 in General Chemistry 1. Didnt spend enough time on the material 2. Started the homework too late 3. Didnt memorize the information I needed to memorize 4. Did not use the book 5. Assumed I understood information that I had read and re-read, but had not applied Top 5 Reasons Students Made an A on Test 1: 1. Did preview-review for every class 2. Did a little of the homework at a time 3. Used the book and did the suggested problems 4. Made flashcards of the information to be memorized 5. Practiced explaining the information to others
Email from ENG Professor at New Mexico State Univ. Received on 10/22/2013 At the end of a 60 minute learning strategies presentation by the professor, students were given a survey to determine their self-assessment of whether they were using or not using the strategies. The average scores of the different groups on the first two exams are shown below. Self-Reported Use of Strategies Exam 1 Exam 2 Did not use the strategies 58 54
Used metacognitive strategies 95 80 Comments from Engineering Students about what they changed for Test 3* I changed my study habits by doing the homework early. I also started reading some of the material before going to the class. The most effective was spending more time on the material. I started studying for the exam sooner. I also took more time to do the homework. I reviewed/rewrote my notes from class. I studied for the class as close to everyday as possible I got together with other classmates and helped them with their weakness and of course they helped me with mine as
well. *class average increased from 65.7% to 80.5%! (for students who took all three course exams) LSU Analytical Chemistry Graduate Students Cumulative Exam Record 2004 2005 2005 2006 9/04 Failed 10/05 Passed
10/04 Failed 11/05 Failed 11/04 Failed 12/05 Passed best in group 12/04
Began work with CAS and the Writing Center in October 2005 Dr. Algernon Kelley, December 2009 From a Xavier University student to Dr. Kelley in Fall 2011 Oct. 17, 2011 Hello Dr. Kelley. I am struggling at Xavier and I REALLY want to succeed, but everything I've tried seems to end with a "decent" grade. Im not the type of person that settles for decent. What you preached during the time you were in Dr. Privett's class last week is still ringing in my head. I really want to know how you were able to do really well even despite your circumstances growing
up. I was hoping you could mentor me and guide me down the path that will help me realize my true potential while here at Xavier. Honestly I want to do what you did, but I seriously can't find a way how to. Can I please set up a meeting with you as soon as youre available so I can learn how to get a handle grades and classes? Oct. 24, 2011 Hey Dr. Kelley, I made an 84 on my chemistry exam (compared to the 56 on my first one) using your method for 2 days (without prior intense studying). Thanks for pointing me in the right direction. Ill come by your office Friday and talk to you about the test. Nov 3, 2011 Hey Dr. Kelley! I have increased my Bio exam grade from a 76% to a 91.5% using your system. Ever since I started your study cycle program, my grades have significantly improved. I have honestly gained a sense of hope and We can significantly increase student learning!
We must teach students the learning process, provide specific strategies and motivate students to use the strategies We must not judge student potential on initial performance We must encourage students to persist in the face of initial failure We must encourage the use of metacognitive tools Final Reflection Questions Who is primarily responsible for student learning? a) the student b) the instructor c) the institution Who do you think students say is primarily responsible
for student learning? a) the student b) the instructor c) the institution The reality is that when all three of these entities take full responsibility for student learning, we will experience a significant increase in student learning, retention, and graduation rates! Special Note Please visit the CAS website at www.cas.lsu.edu. We have on-line workshops that will introduce you and your students to effective metacognitive strategies. Please feel free to
contact me at [email protected] Have fun teaching your students powerful metacognitive strategies! Saundra McGuire Useful Websites www.cas.lsu.edu www.howtostudy.org www.vark-learn.com www.drearlbloch.com Additional References Bruer, John T. , 2000. Schools For Thought: A Science of Learning in the Classroom. MIT Press.
Bransford, J.D., Brown, A.L., Cocking, R.R. (Eds.), 2000. How people learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Christ, F. L., 1997. Seven Steps to Better Management of Your Study Time. Clearwater, FL: H & H Publishing Cromley, Jennifer, 2000. Learning to Think, Learning to Learn: What the Science of Thinking and Learning Has to Offer Adult Education. Washington, DC: National Institute for Literacy. Ellis, David, 2006. Becoming a Master Student*. New York: Houghton-Mifflin. Hoffman, Roald and Saundra Y. McGuire. (2010). Learning and Teaching Strategies. American Scientist , vol. 98, pp. 378382. Nilson, Linda, 2004. Teaching at Its Best: A Research-Based Resource for College Instructors. Bolton, MA: Anker Publishing Company. Pierce, William, 2004. Metacognition: Study Strategies, Monitoring, and Motivation. http://academic.pg.cc.md.us/~wpeirce/MCCCTR/metacognitio
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