How to analyze a text

How to analyze a text

HOW TO ANALYZE A TEXT THINGS YOU MUST KNOW SOAPS Speaker Occassion Audience Purpose Subject Speaker Who is the speaker? Name Writers Credentials SOAPS Speaker Occasion Audience

Purpose Subject Occasion What is the occasion? When was the piece written? Where was the piece published? What is the context or situation that surrounds or affects this argument? What is the genre of the text? SOAPS Speaker Occasion

Audience Purpose Subject Audience Who is the intended audience? SOAPS Speaker Occasion Audience Purpose Subject Purpose What is the speaker trying to do

with this argument? SOAPS Speaker Occasion Audience Purpose Subject Subject What is the speaker writing about? What is the overall topic of the argument? SOAPS Speaker Occasion

Audience Purpose Subject TIME TO ANALYZE Using The Language Police analyze to determine the SOAPS of the argument. USING SOAPS IN YOUR INTRO: THE FORMAT 1. Speaker, Occasion Subject (Writer's Credentials), (Writer's first and last name), in his/her (Type of Text), (Title of Text), (strong verb) (writer's subject). STRONG VS. WEAK VERBS STRONG VERBS (Analysis)

WEAK VERBS (Summary) Implies says Suggests this quote shows Compares relates Emphasizes explains

Defines goes on to say Trivializes states Denigrates tells Vilifies shows Demonizes

USING SOAPS IN YOUR INTRO: THE FORMAT 1. Speaker, Occasion Subject (Writer's Credentials), (Writer's first and last name), in his/her (Type of Text), (Title of Text), (strong verb) (writer's subject). 2. Purpose (Writer's Last Name)'s purpose is to (What the writer does in the text). USING SOAPS IN YOUR INTRO: THE FORMAT 1. Speaker, Occasion Subject (Writer's Credentials), (Writer's first and last name), in his/ her (Type of Text), (Title of Text), (strong verb) (writer's subject). 2. Purpose (Writer's Last Name)'s purpose is to (What the writer does in the text). 3. Audience He/she adopts (or equivalent verb) a(n) (adjective

describing the attitude/feeling conveyed by the writer) tone in order to (verb phrase describing what the writer wants readers to do/think)in his/her (intended audience). NOTE: This would be followed by your thesis. SOAPS IN THE INTRO EXAMPLE: Novelist, Amy Tan, in her narrative essay, Fish Cheeks, recounts an embarrassing Christmas Eve dinner when she was 14 years old. Tans purpose is to convey the idea that, at fourteen, she wasnt able to recognize the love her mother had for her or the sacrifices she made. She adopts a sentimental tone in order to appeal to similar feelings and experiences in her adult readers. Use your SOAPS information to try to write the intro for The Language Police. ANALYZE FOR USE OF APPEALS Logos

Hard Evidence Facts Polls/Surveys Testimonies Statistics Common Sense Enthymemes Syllogisms Cultural Vaules/Assumptions Pathos Who is the audience? Is the use of

emotion appropriate to the audience? What emotion is evoked? Are specific kinds of emotion evoked such as sentimental or nostalgic appeals? How does it work to connect the argument with the reader? How does it work to show the reader that the author understands them? Ethos Authority Credibility Motives

THE LANGUAGE POLICE Intro Logos I. A. Censors on the political right . . . behavior. (276 -277) AND Censors from the political left . . . being. (277) i. This reflects differing cultural values or assumptions. B. Definition of censorship (276) i. Fact, even though the source is not given (negative ethos) C. Censorship vs. selection (276) i. Logical - Syllogism II. Ethos A.

Censors on the political right . . . (276) and Censors from the political left . . . (277) i. This shows that she is knowledgable and that she is addressing all sides of the issue which makes her argument more credible. III. Pathos A. The word censorship refers to the deliberate removal of language, ideas, and books from the classroom or library because they are deemed offensive and contraversial. (276) i. B. . . . Delete words, ideas, and topics from textbooks and tests for no other reason that their fear of controversy. (276) i. C. Arcadia . . .intruded. (276-277) i. Great example of nostalgic appeal may work with older educators but could go against the argument with younger educators or readers

ANALYZE FOR THE AUTHORS USE OF STYLE COMPONENTS OF STYLE 1. Diction 2. Syntax 3. Details 4. Imagery 5. Tone 6. Etc. 1. Look for SPECIFIC WORDS or WORD PHRASES that seem stronger than others. Diction is NEVER the entire sentence.

2. Look for a PATTERN (or similarity) in the words the writer chooses. 3. The pattern could include REPETITION of the same words or phrases. DICTION The words a writer chooses to convey a particular meaning DICTION

His adventures allowed him to slingshot around the world. VS His adventures allowed him to travel around the world. 1. Look for SPECIFIC WORDS or WORD PHRASES that seem stronger than others. Diction is NEVER the entire sentence.

Do the words used imply a certain feeling? Sadness? Happiness? Etc? This pattern helps to create a particular kind of diction. DICTION 2. Look for a PATTERN (or similarity) in the words the writer chooses. Repetition helps the speaker emphasize a point, feeling, etc.

DICTION 2. The pattern could include REPETITION of the same words or phrases. Be watchful of REPETITION in the argument. OK WORDS VS. GREAT WORDS A coat isn't torn; it is tattered. The US Army does not want revenge; it is thirsting for

revenge. A door does not shut; it thuds. 1. SCHEMES A variance in the normal subjectverb- object pattern 2. SENTENCE LENGTH Look at how the writer varies the length of sentences What is the effect? 3. SENTENCE TYPE Look at the types of sentences the author uses What is the effect? 4. PUNCTUATION Look at or for a variety in the punctuation What does this

change do to the meaning of the text? SYNTAX The way words are arranged within sentences THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A TROPE AND A SCHEME Rhetorical devices were first recognized by Classical (Greek and Roman) philosophers of rhetoric such as Aristotle, Quintilian, and Cicero. In Greek the word trope means a turn. A trope uses words in non-literal ways. A scheme, on the other hand, deals with word order, syntax,

letters and sounds. Though rarely consciously used by themselves in ordinary language, tropes are paired with schemes to create the more popular term figure of speech. Figures of speech help enhance a persons style of writing. SENTENCE TYPE look at the types of sentences the author uses What is the effect? Simple: Subject - Verb (I went to the store.) Compound: two independent clauses joined by a conjunction (I went to the store, and I bought candy.) Complex: Independent clause and

dependent clause (While traveling to the store, I saw my friend.) Compound-Complex: Two indepedent clauses and one or more dependent clauses (While traveling to the store, I saw my friend, and she gave me money for candy.) Declarative: a statement ( I went to the store.) Exclamatory: strong feeling (What a wonderful candy store!) Interrogative: question (Is this a store?)

Imperative: command (Go to the store.) SYNTAX The way words are arranged within sentences 2. PUNCTUATION Look at or for a variety in the punctuation What does this change do to the meaning of the text? SEMICOLON: (;) gives equal weight to two or more independent clauses in a sentence. Writers use this to reinforce parallel ideas and show how both ideas are equally important

COLON: (:) directs the reader's attention to the words that follow. Writers use this to show the reader that the information after the colon is important DASH: (-) marks a sudden change in thought or tone or sets off a brief summary SYNTAX The way words are arranged within sentences It is a special kind of rhetorical

strategy because tone is created by the writer's use of all of the other rhetorical strategies: Diction and Tropes Syntax and Schemes Details and Lack of Details t TONE the teller's attitude or feeling about the subject of his text

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