How to Prepare and Present Proposals

How to Prepare and Present Proposals

How to Prepare and Present Proposals: a twelve session trainers workshop Improving our capacity to prepare complete and balanced proposals shortens the path from good ideas to implementation. Session 1 Overview Why are we here? What are we expected to accomplish? What information and techniques will we share? What are the different examples and problems we will work on? How will we critique our work? Information Technique Cases Teaching Options Feedback Improvements Proposal Samples Mozambique Sugar to Ethanol Egypt Waste to Electricity Kenya Bagasse to Electricity China Waste Water Treatment Senegal Solar Milling Typical Proposal Problems

Incomplete or Imbalanced Misdirected Non-responsive Terminology Gap Schedule and Approach Day 1-preparatory work Day 2-building a proposals Day 3-presenting a proposal and training others Lectures + Exercises + Feedback Primary Exercises-Working as teams, sharing five proposal examples. Authors will help teams understand the proposal; teams will assist authors in suggesting improvements Feedback will concentrate on the strengths and weaknesses of each session Wiki, Memory Sticks and all-in-one Preparing and Presenting Proposals A Guidebook on Preparing Technology Transfer Projects for Financing Chapter 1Summary Chapter 2Before Preparing a Proposal Chapter 3Preparing a Proposal Chapter 4Presenting a Proposal Chapter 5Customizing a Proposal

Information Boxes and Lessons Learned Templates and Other Annexes Basic Concepts Proposal Champion and Enabler Money, time and other resources Idea + Request Proposal Champion Enabler Session 1 Exercise You are preparing a budget. How is this a proposal? You are asked to approve a trip. How is this a proposal? A school needs books. You decide to raise money for the school. Who is the Champion and how is your decision a proposal? Who are the enablers? Is it still a proposal if you simply buy the books yourself and send the books to the school? Feedback and Break

Too long, too short? Too simple, too much? Lecture and Exercise Critique Questions and Discussions helped, distracted? Session 2 Method: Seven Questions Information-the seven key questions Technique-building block approach Information-content for two of the five proposals Exercise-as a group we will conduct a preliminary inventory of two proposals, identify the seven key pieces of content (or not) and address a core issue: Is it clear what is being requested? Method What? Where? What If? Who? Why? Base Case To Whom? How?

Proposal Preparing and Presenting Proposals: Building Blocks Proposal What If? To Whom? Base Case What? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Where? Who? Why? How? What? Product, service, technology, client Where? Location, market, operating and regulatory conditions Who? Champion, owners, sponsors, team, approval bodies, stakeholders Why? Financial, social, environmental, market, growth How? Status, milestones, schedule, costs, revenues, grants, loans, investment What if? Schedule changes, output and cost variances, kep person events To Whom? Grant-makers, Lenders, Investors, Specialized Programs, Others

Guidebook Checklist Read Egypt and Kenya See Page 16 of Guidebook Conduct a preliminary inventory of proposals Identify included and missing parts Is it clear what is being requested? Session 3 - Numbers: accounting, finance and scheduling concepts Information: key terms used in the quantitative portions of proposals Technique: debt service, net present value, internal rate of return income statement, balance sheet planning, construction and operations Exercise: simple payback Ellen and Niki Buy a Coffeepot) compound interest calculationssee Guidebook Page 39 Basic Concepts Time Periods and Money Planning Construction Pre-operation Operation

Capital Cost Capital Grants Loans, Debt Equity Revenue Operating Costs Operating Grants Net Operating Revenue Debt Service Cash Flow Dividends Planning Construction Pre-operation Operation CAPITAL Time Periods and Money

Capital Cost Capital Grants Loans, Debt Equity Revenue Operating Costs Operating Grants Net Revenue Debt Service Cash Flow Dividends Time Periods and Money Planning Construction Pre-operation Operation

OPERATING Capital Cost Capital Grants Loans, Debt Equity Revenue Operating Costs Operating Grants Net Revenue Debt Service Cash Flow Dividends Planning includes

Technical analysis Site selection Environmental and social assessments Feasibility analysis Obtaining all permits and approvals Finding, negotiating and closing the necessary funding to make a proposal reality During the planning period, the Champion must track and record time spent on activities. Sometimes called sweat equity, this information becomes extremely helpful in later discussions, especially with new potential investor-owners. Construction and pre-operation include: Site acquisition Preparation of land Building of structures

Installation of infrastructure Acquisition and installation of equipment Setting up offices and distribution points Acquisition of operating equipment (vehicles, office, maintenance) Fees to be paid to experts Fees to be paid or credited as shares of ownership to Champions An operating budget and plan includes: Revenue estimates that show both the number of units expected to be produced and the value of each unit Labour costs (separated between labour to produce the product or service and labour to run the company or the programme) Raw materials to produce the product or service (e.g., fuel to produce electricity or untreated bed-nets and the special coating to be applied) Transport: fuel, maintenance Communications: phone, fax, e-mail, postage Utilities: heat, cooling, water, electricity

Packaging Office supplies Equipment rental Insurance Accounting and auditing services Basic Concepts Financial Analysis Cash Flow Interest Debt Service Net Present Value Internal Rate of Return Debt Service Coverage Ratios Project Rate of Return Interest Year 0 (when the money is borrowed) = 1,000 Add 12% for year 1 = 120 Balance at end of year = 1,120.00 Add 12% for year 2 = 134.40 Balance at end of year 2 = 1,254.40 Add 12 % for year 3 = 150.53 Balance at end of year 3 = 1,404.93

FV = P(1 + R) N Add 12% for year 4 = 168.59 Balance at end of year 4 = 1,573.52 Add 12% for year 5 = 188.82 Balance at end of year 5 = 1,762.34 1762.34=1000(1+.12)5 Interest On a calculator or spreadsheet, getting this answer would be a function of entering the present value (PV) of 1,000, interest rate (i or R) of 12%, the number of periods (n or nper) of 5 and then solve for future value (FV). In an algebraic presentation, this calculation is as follows: FV = P(1 + R) N Where: FV = future value P = principal (initial amount) R = annual rate of interest (also abbreviated as lower case i) N = number of years FV = 1000(1+.12)5 1.12 * 1.12 * 1.12 * 1.12 * 1.12 = 1.7623 (* = multiplied by) 1000 * 1.7623 = 1762.34 Compounding

FV = P(1 + R)n Where: FV = future value P = principal (initial amount) R = annual rate of interest (also abbreviated as lower case i) n = number of years FV = 1000(1+.12)5 * = multiplied by 1.12 * 1.12 * 1.12 * 1.12 * 1.12 = 1.7623 1000 * 1.7623 = 1762.34 Compounding: a calculation showing 1,000 at 12 per cent interest compounded yearly for five years follows: Year 0 (when the money is borrowed) = 1,000

Add 12% for year 1 = 120 Balance at end of year = 1,120.00 Add 12% for year 2 = 134.40 Balance at end of year 2 = 1,254.40 Add 12 % for year 3 = 150.53 Balance at end of year 3 = 1,404.93 Add 12% for year 4 = 168.59 Balance at end of year 4 = 1,573.52 Add 12% for year 5 = 188.82 Balance at end of year 5 = 1,762.34 Debt Service Repay 1,000 over five years at 12 per cent three methods Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Total payment A - Bullet

120 120 120 120 1,120 1,600 B - Equal Annual or Mortgage 277 277 277 277 277 1,385 C - Equal principal

320 296 272 248 224 1,360 Payment Methods Five-year net present value at 12 per cent discount rate Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year Year 5 4 Total payment

NPV, 12%, five years Case A 120 120 120 120 1,120 1,600 1,000 Case B 277 277 277 277

277 1,385 1,000 Case C 320 296 272 248 224 1,360 1,000 See Annex 5, Page 191 for formula and factors IRR and NPV Year Year 0 1 Amt. Amt. out in

Yr. Yr. 3 Yr. 4 2 Yr. 5 Total 1. -1,000 300 240 240 270 350 400 2. -1,000 350 280 350 280 140 400

3. -1,000 350 350 300 200 200 400 IRR and NPV Year 0 Year 1 Amt. Amt. out in Yr. Yr. NPV @ Yr. 4 Yr. 5 Total 2 3 13% 1. -1,000 300 240 240

270 350 400 -22 2. -1,000 350 280 350 280 140 600 +17 3. -1,000 350 350 300 200

200 400 +20 IRR and NPV Year 0 Year 1 Amt. Amt out . in Yr. 2 Yr. 3 Yr. 4 Yr. 5 NPV @ 13 % IRR 1. -1,000

300 240 240 270 350 -22 12.0% 2. -1,000 350 280 350 280 140 +17 13.9% 3.

-1,000 350 350 300 200 200 +20 14.1% Debt Service and DSCRs Debt service options Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Total Case A 120 120 120

120 1,120 1,600 Case B 277 277 277 277 277 1,385 Case C 320 296 272 248 224 1,360

Year Funds Available Debt service coverage ratio 1 2 3 4 5 400 420 440 460 480 1-5 2,200 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Years 15 Case A 3.3 3.5 3.7 3.8 0.4

1.4 Case B 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.6 Case C 1.3 1.4 1.6 1.9 2.1 1.6 Financial Concepts

Interest Principal Debt Service Net Present Value Internal Rate of Return Debt Service Coverage Ratios i P or p P+I NPV IRR DSCR Session 4 Process: fact-finding to base case to finished proposal Information Content: taking the seven questions and using these to complete a proposal

Technique Content: template paper or Excel-based proposal building Exercise: by team, conduct an inventory of the five sample proposals Preparing and Presenting Proposals: Building Blocks Proposal What If? To Whom? Base Case What? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Where? Who? Why? How? What? Product, service, technology, client Where? Location, market, operating and regulatory conditions Who? Champion, owners, sponsors, team, approval bodies, stakeholders Why? Financial, social, environmental, market, growth How? Status, milestones, schedule, costs, revenues, grants, loans, investment

What if? Schedule changes, output and cost variances, kep person events To Whom? Grant-makers, Lenders, Investors, Specialized Programs, Others Preparing and Presenting Proposals: Initial Questions What? Where? Product, service, technology, clients Location, market, operating and regulatory conditions Who? Champion, owners, sponsors, team, suppliers, approval bodies, stakeholders Why? Financial, social, environmental returns, benefits and issues, market and replication potential, sustainability How? Current status, milestones, metrics, schedule, costs, revenues, grants, loans, investment From Initial Questions to Base Case What? Where?

Who? Why? How? Base Case From Initial Questions to Base Case Planning Costs and Schedule Construction Costs and Schedule What? Planning and Capital Grants Where? Who? Why? Debt and Equity Base Case Operations Commencement and Roll-out Revenues Operating Grants Operating Expenses How?

Net Revenue from Operations Depreciation, Taxes, Debt Service Session 5 What? And Where? Information Content: the different dimensions of defining product, service, technology, clients, market and setting Technique Content: us of templates Exercise: by teams, investigate the What? and the Where? of one sample proposal, record Notes and Comments to be shared with other teams and proposal authors Product or Service Are you offering a Product or Service? Product Service Both Other Existing Other Is the Product or Service New? New New to this

area Have customers seen this Product or Service before? Never Saw elsewher e Yes, exists locally Other Technology Description Reference for further technical details Where is this technology used? Is the technology successul in these places? Globally Yes No

Don't know In this country Yes No Don't know In this local Yes No Don't know Customer What types of customers will you serve? Individuals or families Small busines ses Large busines ses

Approximately how many customers will be served in next 3 years? Average Customer Income / Revenue Average Customer Income / Revenue Trends Other Session 6 Who? and How? Information Content: the variety of human and institutional skills and motivations to be considered in creating an implementation teams and a plan Technique content: use of templates to build such an inventory Exercise: teams switch proposals and prepare an assessment of the team and the plan, creating a series of questions and notes to be shared with other teams and the proposal author Champion Self-Assessment What is your main motivation for starting this business? Earn a regular income Be involved day to day

Be involved only part-time Earn a one-time fee or lump-sum payment Create a valuable business over time by growing it slowly Engage family members Gain experience Improve the well-being of a particular community Improve the environment Other Please Describe the skills your team members have (check all that apply): Please specify Technical Operational Financial Legal Sales Service Negotiation Marketing Political Fundraising Other Level of competence Planning Costs

Obtaining all P1 permits Technical P2 analysis Negotiating and preparing contracts P3 Negotiating and preparing contracts P4 Year -2 - - - Technical P5 analysis - P6 - P7

- Year -1 Year 0 Planning tasks Responsible Estimated person cost Month Number Start Finish P1 Permits Name 15,000 1 12 Technical P2

analysis I Name 10,000 1 12 P3 Contracts I Name 5,000 1 12 P4 Contracts II Name 10,000 13 24 Technical P5 analysis II

Name 5,000 13 24 P6 P7 P8 P9 P1 0 45,000 Construction / Preoperations Costs C C C C C C C C C Year -2

Year -1 Year 0 Year 1 - - Land Acquisition 1 Final engineering 2 and design Machinery 3 Machinery 4 Machinery 5 Machinery 6 Testing 7 Testing 8 Testing 9 Subtotal -

- - Y Construction tasks Responsible person Estimated cost C1 Land acquisition Name 240,000 C2 Engineering Name 110,000 C3 Machinery 1

Name 2,381 C4 Machinery 2 Name 200,000 C5 Machinery 3 Name 111,000 C6 Machinery 4 Name 22,333 C7 Testing 1 Name

300,000 C8 Testing 2 Name 33,334 Interest during C10 construction Name 50,952 C9 1,070,000 Grants and Subsidies Year 2 Year -1 Year 0 Year 1

Year 2 - - For Planning or Construction / 1 Pre-operation NEW requests Existing or other requested grants and subsidies 2 For Operation-NEW For Operation-Existing or other requested TOTAL - - - Revenues Year 1 Year 2

Year 3 Year 4 Year Units Revenue per Unit R1 Revenue from 1 Units Revenue per Unit R2 Revenue from 2 Units Revenue per Unit R3 Revenue from 3 REVENUES - - - - - RESULTS Planning Costs Construction / Pre-operations Costs CAPITAL COSTS

Total, all years Year -2 Year -1 Year 0 - - - - - - - - - - - -

Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 - - - - - - - - - - - - -

- Grants and Subsides - For Planning, Construction or Pre-Operations GRANTS AND SUBSIDIES REVENUES OPERATING COSTS NET REV.FROM - - - - - - - - - Y

Capital Costs - from Grants - Balance - Owner's Equity Investment Balance to be Raised - Equity from new owner - investors Balance to be raised from loans - yea Year Year -2 Year -1 Y Capital Cost from Donors

Capital Grants - from Owner-Investors Equity Investment - from Lenders Loans - - Capital Cost - Operations Year Revenues - Operating Grants or Subsidies

- Operating Costs - Net Revenues from Operations "EBITDA" Interest - Year -2 Year -1 Y #DIV/0! #DIV/0! #D For Length of Loan Only #NUM! Taxes Depreciation Net Income Add Back: Depreciation Less: Amortization / Principal Payments

Net Cash Flow to Owner-Investors IRR Year -2 Year -1 Year 0 Capital costs From donors Capital grants 50,000 From owner-investors Equity investment 465,000 174,648 159,366 130,986 From lenders Loans

600,000 225,352 205,634 169,014 1,115,000 400,000 365,000 350,000 Capital costs Operations Revenues Operating grants or subsidies Year -2 Year -1 Year 0 4,290,000 12,500 Operating costs

1,880,000 Net revenues from operations (EBITDA) 1,532,500 Interest 50,000 (For length of loan only) 314,446 Taxes Depreciation Net income Add back: Depreciation Less: amortization/ principal payments 600,000 Net cash flow to owner-investors DSCR IRR 1.68 8.4%

(174,648) (159,366) (130,366) Session 7 Why? impacts and benefits Information Content: classifying the type of project from an environmental perspective and creating an inventory of the benefits offered by a proposal Technique Content: recognizing project differences and impacts, thinking beyond conventional classifications to realize the maximum triple bottom line Exercise: with authors joining the proposal teams the notes, comments and questions thus far will be reviewed and the impacts and benefits of the projects discussed. Typical category A projects Projects affecting indigenous people Construction of dams and reservoirs Projects involving resettlement of communities/families Pesticides and herbicides: production or commercial use All projects which pose serious socioeconomic concerns Major irrigation projects or other projects affecting water

supply in a given region Projects associated with induced development (e.g., inward migration) Domestic or hazardous waste disposal operations Projects which impact on cultural property (e.g., religious and archaeological sites) Hazardous chemicals: manufacture, storage or transportation above a threshold volume. Projects which pose serious occupational or health risks Oil and gas developments, including pipeline construction Impacts on protected natural habitats or areas of high biological diversity, including wetlands, coral reefs and mangroves Large infrastructure projects, including development of ports and harbours, airports, roads, rail and mass transit systems Forestry operations (commercial logging operations or logging in primary humid tropical forests) Metal smelting, refining and foundry operations Large thermal and hydropower developments Mining (opencast and pit)

Large-scale industrial plants and estates International waterways Use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) or other ozonedepleting Hazardous materials, air pollution, noise or odours Typical category B projects Specific waste disposal issues Solar photovoltaic (if batteries used) Waste handling Biomass/biogas Routing, partially storing river flows Small to medium-sized hydroelectricity projects Typical category C projects Pre-feasibility study preparation Energy efficiency

Consulting firms Share registries Service industries Stock broking Technical assistance Retail banking Exclusions -- of course, there are activities with the clear potential to pose unacceptable social and environmental risks that tend to be unclassified as A, B or C. Examples of projects to be avoided include: Production or activities involving harmful or exploitative forms of child labour Production of or trade in any product or activity deemed illegal under host

country laws or regulations or international conventions and agreements Production of or trade in weapons and munitions Production of or trade in alcoholic beverages (excluding beer and wine) Production of or trade in tobacco Gambling casinos and equivalent enterprises Trade in wildlife or wildlife products regulated under Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) Production of or trade in radioactive materials Production of or trade in or use of unbonded asbestos fibres Commercial logging operations in primary humid tropical forest Production of or trade in products containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) Production of or trade in pharmaceuticals subject to phase-outs or bans Production of or trade in ozone-depleting substances subject to phase-out Drift-net fishing in the marine environment using nets in excess of 2 km in length 4,313,198 93,325 867,818 Women Ownership/ Shareholding Jobs Supported 4,034 10,336,199 Capital Mobilized E+Co's Portfolio Return after Write-offs

$183,169,170 7.9% CO2 Offsets by Enterprises/tons 3,431,790 Kerosene Entrepreneurs receiving services Improved Income $ CO2 Offset for Life of Project/projected tons 17,368,845 Firewood & Charcoal 108 Potential Growth or FollowOn Capital $ 119,900,000 Value of CO2 Offsets for Life of Project

$ 122,525 86,844,223 984 E+Co Repayments to Investors $5,306,289 Reforested Land/ Hectares and Number of Trees ~320,000 trees/ 280 hectares Session 8 the base case Information Content-base case components Technique Content-template entry and use of default values and basic assumptions Exercise-teams and authors enter data and begin the compile a list of what could go wrong, filling in default assumptions where data is not available Planning Costs P1 Obtaining all permits

- P2 Technical analysis - Year -2 Year -1 Year 0 - - - Negotiating and preparing contracts - P3 Negotiating and preparing contracts - P4

P5 Technical analysis - P6 - P7 - P8 - P9 - P10 TOTAL - Construction / Preoperations Costs C1 Year -2

Year -1 Year 0 Year 1 Land Acquisition Final engineering and design C2 C3 Machinery C4 Machinery C5 Machinery C6 Machinery C7 Testing C8

Testing C9 Testing Subtotal C10 Annual Interest during construction= TOTAL - - - - - - - - -

- - - - - - 5% Grants and Subsidies 1 Year -2 Year -1 Year 0 Year 1 Year 2 - - -

For Planning or Construction / Pre-operation NEW requests Existing or other requested grants and subsidies 2 For Operation-NEW For Operation-Existing or other requested TOTAL - - Revenues Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Units Revenue per Unit

R1 Revenue from 1 Units Revenue per Unit R2 Revenue from 2 Units Revenue per Unit R3 Revenue from 3 REVENUES - - - - - RESULTS Total, all years Year -2

Year -1 Year 0 - - - - - - - - - - - - Year 1 Year 2

Year 3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Planning Costs Construction / Pre-operations Costs

CAPITAL COSTS Grants and Subsides For Planning, Construction or Pre-Operations - - - - - GRANTS AND SUBSIDIES REVENUES OPERATING COSTS NET REVENUE FROM OPERATIONS - - - - Y

We know from previous steps the following: Capital Costs - from Grants - Balance - Owner's Equity Investment Balance to be Raised - Equity from new owner - investors Balance to be raised from loans - Base Case Sp yea The Following Table represents the venture in operation. It brings forward data from the "How Templates 1-7." Year

Year -2 Year -1 Y Capital Cost from Donors Capital Grants - from Owner-Investors Equity Investment - from Lenders Loans - - Capital Cost Operations Year

Revenues - Operating Grants or Subsidies - Operating Costs - Net Revenues from Operations "EBITDA" Interest Taxes Depreciation - #NUM! For Length of Loan Only Year -2 Year -1 Y Session 9 What if? sensitivity analysis Information Content use of checklists of

things that might go wrong Technique Content risk analysis, sensitivity analysis grouping like events and impacts Exercise a series of sensitivity cases will be prepared and an inventory made of key versus other risks From Base Case to Final Questions What? Where? What If? Who? Why? How? Base Case To Whom From Base Case to Final Questions WHAT IF? Schedule disruptions Cost and revenue variances Output differences Key person changes What If? Laws, regulations, owners,

sponsors, staffing, political Changes TO WHOM? Customers Donors Lenders Investors Base Case To Whom Completion risk involves the risk that something started might not be completed after a lender has made funds available. This can happen when a proposal costs far more than originally expected or the market has changed significantly during construction. Completion risk can be managed through the type of contract entered into to design, build and commission (start operation). Technology risk involves something not performing as planned or becoming obsolete far more rapidly than expected. If the technology never performs as agreed to in the installation phase this can be part of completion risk, but generally it is considered to be in a separate category. Technology risk is most often managed through guarantees and warranties from the suppliers of equipment and also through the acceptance testing process. Longer-term performance can be enhanced through operations and maintenance contracts and various types of insurance. Supply risk involves raw materials not being available. This can include resources which the

project is going to use (e.g., a mine or a plantation forest) or buy (e.g., fuel or supplies). Managing supply risk sometimes requires entering contracts for sufficiently long enough periods of time and with predictable prices to assure an uninterrupted supply of inputs. Economic risk exists even after a project is completed, the technology is working and the inputs are available. The result might be inefficient or the estimated market (demand) evaporates. Confidence in (conservative and realistic) market projections and the Champions demonstration of market knowledge and awareness are crucial in managing economic risk. Political risk involves the risk that the rules and regulations governing a proposal might change. A good example might be the risk that a government may arbitrarily raise the taxes on a project to render it not economic. Environmental risk involves unknown environmental conditions that might disrupt a plan after it is begun. Social risk is a category that takes into account all manner of social disturbances or disruptions that can impair a proposals implementation. Force majeure risk is the risk that something catastrophic a storm, an earthquake, a devastating accident may cause a project to fail. Insurance programmes directly address force majeure risks.

Financial risk occurs either when variable interest rates are used, refinancing of the project is assumed sometime during its life or additional financing is required in the future. Interest rates change. Large changes can make an enterprise non-competitive or not liquid (liquidity means having the cash to meet repayment obligation to lenders). Currency risk is closely related to financial risk and could be lumped into that category, but the very nature of technology transfer projects warrants it being treated separately. Currency risk involves the difference between the value of the currency that impacts income or expenses and the value of the currency in which the loan repayments must be made. Session 10 To Whom? Information Content: types of enablers and funders, relationship of funders to rates of return Technique Content: classifying and matching funding needs to enablers Exercise: teams (with authors) create a list of what to pursue Peter Storey introduces PFAN Beginning the Search Estimated rate of return Negative or zero Type of funding

Grants and subsidies Zero to between 5 and 7 per cent Donors and investors who consider social and environmental returns as well as financial ones Over 57 per cent Above 10 per cent Specialized lender-investor-donors who see the blended value potential of investments are likely targets Private-sector investors and lenders Return potential 15% Looking for PLANNING support 10% 5% 0% Donors and specialized programmes

Owner investors Financial investors Triplebottom-line investors Experts, suppliers, etc. 15% Return Potential Looking for CONSTRUCTION Finance 10% 5% 0% Donors and specialized programs Ownerinvestors Financial investors

Lenders Triplebottomline investors Experts, suppliers, etc. Major customers Return potential Operations stage 15% Funding for OPERATIONS 10% 5% 0% Donors and specialized programmes Customers

Experts, suppliers, etc. Lenders Ownerinvestors Government subsidy Session 11 Customizing and Summarizing Information Content: types of customization, key elements of summarization Technique Content: carbon monetization Exercise: a carbon monetization calculation and adjustment to an IRR teams summarize their proposals on one page and prepare 5 minute presentations Carbon Monetization Exercise Summarization Technology transfer is about all the combinations of products, services and know-how available to fashion the desired result of sustainable development. Innovative financing for technology transfer is more about connecting new combinations of actors and interests and applying tried and true approaches than it is about creating new, neverbefore-used products, services and tools.

Session 12 Teaching Others Information Content: review of the information and techniques conveyed, methods used and exercises Technique Content: feedback and improvements suggestions on adaptations and usefulness Exercise: team feedback, author feedback, individual feedback inventory of materials needed

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