Human Body Systems

Human Body Systems Digestive System Purpose The Digestive System converts food into simpler molecules that can be used by cells; absorbs food; eliminates waste The entire digestive process

takes between 24 and 33 hours Organs/Components Mouth The first stop in the disassembly of your food; Mechanical digestion = chewing and Chemical digestion = enzymes found in saliva Pharynx (throat)

Epiglottis Small flap that closes over the opening of the respiratory system when swallowing, preventing food from entering the airway. Esophagus Muscular tube connecting the mouth to the stomach Organs/Components

Liver Produces bile, a substance that helps break down fats Gall Bladder Stores bile produced by the liver Stomach Muscular pouch like organ where involuntary muscular churning and chemical digestion occurs

Pancreas Secretes enzymes to help break down carbohydrates, proteins and fats Organs/Components Small Intestine Narrow muscular tube where digestion of food is completed with the help of enzymes

secreted by the liver and pancreas Broken down into three sections: 1st--Duodenum 2nd--Jejunum 3rd--Ileum Organs/Components Villi (plural: Villus) Little projections in the lining

of the small intestine that function in the absorption of digested food Large Intestine (colon) Muscular tube where water and salts are absorbed; material spends 18-24 hours here Appendix Tube like extension off of the large intestine

Rectum The last part of the digestive system, feces are eliminated from the rectum through the anus How Does this System Relate to others? Muscular contains smooth muscle

Nervous gets signals that control the rate of digestion Circulatory broken down food travels through blood vessels to cells Endocrine hormones (ex. Insulin) control blood sugar levels Excretory System Purpose The Excretory

System eliminates waste products from the body Organs/Components Kidneys Help maintain homeostasis by filtering blood to remove waste

Nephron Tiny filter that makes up the kidney, there are millions Ureters Tubes connecting the kidneys to the bladder Urinary Bladder Smooth muscle bag that stores a solution of wastes called urine Urethra Tube where urine passed out of

the body Skin Lungs How Does this System Relate to others? Circulatory waste products are carried from the cells to the kidney through blood vessels

Endocrine hormones are sent that control water levels and homeostasis Respiratory expels toxic CO2 out of body Respiratory System Purpose The Respiratory

System provides oxygen needed for cellular respiration and removes carbon Organs/Components Nose and Mouth Respiration begins with taking in air

Pharynx (Throat) Larynx Where your vocal cords are Trachea (Windpipe)

Passes air into the bronchi Bronchi (singular: Bronchus) Passes air from trachea to the lungs Organs/Components Bronchioles

Each Bronchus in the lungs branches out like a tree into bronchioles Alveoli Sacs at the end of the Bronchioles where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged Diaphragm Muscle that enables you to breathe

How Does this System Relate to others? Circulatory brings O2 to the cells and CO2 back to the lungs Excretory part of the excretory system

to get rid of toxic CO2 Circulatory System Purpose The Circulatory Systems brings oxygen, nutrients and hormones to cells; fights infections; removes cell wastes; regulates

body temperature Circulatory System Includes the cardiovascular system and lymphatic system: Lymphatic Cardiovascular system contains system

lymph, lymph contains the nodes, and blood, heart, lymph vessels. and blood vessels. Organs/Components Heart

The pump that keeps blood flowing through your body Blood Vessels Arteries Carry blood away from the heart

Blood Red Blood Cells Carry oxygen to the body cells White blood cells Defend body against disease Platelets Cell fragments needed for blood clotting Plasma Fluid portion of the blood

Heart Anatomy PATHWAY OF BLOOD THROUGH HEART 1. Blood enters the heartTHE through the 2. 3. 4. 5.

6. 7. superior and inferior vena cava. These two paths dump deoxygenated blood into the right atrium. Blood passes from the right atrium through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle. The right ventricle contracts and forces the blood through the pulmonary

semilunar valve into the pulmonary arteries. The blood moves into the lungs and gas exchange occurs, oxygenating the blood. The blood then moves through the pulmonary vein, emptying into the left atrium. The oxygenated blood then passes through the bicuspid valve into the left ventricle.

The left ventricle contracts and forces How Does this System Relate to others? Connected to almost all other systems since the circulatory system carries oxygen to all cells

Skeletal System Purpose The Skeletal System supports the body; protects internal organs; allows movement; stores mineral reserves; Organs/Components

Bones Produce blood cells Red Marrow Produce red and white blood cells Yellow Marrow Consists of stored fat Joints Found where two (2) bones meet

Cartilage Surrounds the end on bone to prevent grinding upon another bone Ligaments Tough band of tissue attaching one bone to another Tendons Thick bands of tissue connecting muscle to bone

How Does this System Relate to others? Muscular system bones and muscles work together for movement Circulatory system and immune system all blood cells (red and white) are made in the bone marrow

Muscular System Purpose The Muscular System produces voluntary movement; circulates blood, Organs/Components

Cardiac Muscle Makes up your heart, is adapted to generate and conduct electrical impulses Skeletal Muscle (voluntary muscle) Attaches to and moves bones Smooth Muscle

(involuntary muscle) Found on walls of internal organs and blood vessels How Does this System Relate to others? Works closely with the: skeletal system Circulatory brings O2 to

muscles and waste products such as lactic acid away Nervous how muscles contract Nervous System Purpose The Nervous System recognizes and

coordinates the body's response to changes in its internal and external environments Organs/Components Neurons (Nerve

Cells) Basic unit of structure and function of the nervous system Long cell with 3 regions 1. Cell body 2. Dendrites Receive impulses and deliver them to the cell

3. Axon Extension of the Organs/Components Brian Control center Spinal Cord Central Nervous

System Made up of the brain and spinal cord and coordinates your bodys activities Peripheral Nervous System

How are neurons connected? Synapses!! How does the Synapse carry the signal? 1. Electrical current travels down the axon 2. Vesicles with chemicals move toward the membrane - what is that called? 3. Chemicals are released and diffuse toward the next cells plasma membrane 4. The chemicals open up the transport proteins and

allow the signal to pass to the next cell - what type of diffusion is this? The synapse carries a signal from cell to cell 1 2 3

4 There are lots of proteins and chemicals in your body to do the work Why is it important that it is an electrical current? What do you think can change neurons and their connections?

Accidents Depressant s Stimulants Disease Accidents Physical

injury of your neurons Depressants inhibit the transmission of sensory impulses at the synapse. Examples are some Drugs and Alcohol Drugs = neuron death Alcohol damages dendrites can repair after abstinence Alcohol blocks

receptors and slows down transmission Stimulants Speed up activities of the nervous system Examples: Caffeine

Nicotine Cocaine Amphetamines Prescription drugs DISEASES Parkinson's Disease ALS - Lou Gehrigs Disease Huntingtons Disease Multiple Sclerosis

Alzheimer's Cerebral Palsy Epilepsy ? SIDS How Does the Nervous System Relate to others? The nervous system

works with many other systems, but works closely with the: Digestive system Muscular system Integumentary System Purpose The Integumentary

System is the barrier against infections and injury; regulates body temperature; protects against ultraviolet Organs/Components Skin Epidermis: outermost layer of skin covers the surfaces of the body

Dermis: inner layer of skin Contains blood vessels, nerve cells, hair follicles, sweat and oil glands Hair, Skin and Nails Made up of Keratin Pigment of skin and hair Controlled by melanin Sweat Produced to help maintain homeostasis Oil Glands

How Does this System Relate to others? The integumentary contains blood vessels and nerves Immune System Purpose The Immune System

helps protect the body from disease; collects fluid lost from blood vessels and return it to the circulatory system Organs/Components Pathogen, Bacteria, Viruses, Infections, and

parasites Leukocytes Antibodies Antigens Pathogens and all the other stuff Any biological agent that causes illness and/or disease to its host. Also known as a germs, simple as

that! Different types of pathogens include the following: Lymphocytes White blood Cells Make antibodies in order to defend the body against foreign substances

Antibodies & Antigens Antigens= a fragment of a protein or peptide from the pathogen, taken to the surface of the infected cell Antibodies attach to the antigen, completing the signal, coding the infected cells for destruction. Antibodies are constructed of DNA fragments, making them so

unique and almost innumerable. Interferon Response As the name suggests, they interferewith viral replication! Once the virus infects the cell, the cell creates a chemical protein called Interferon!

Interferon inhibits viral reproduction between cells by binding to the receptors of uninfected cells. Fever Response The response to toxins in the body, produced by bacteria, is to increase the internal temperature of the body. The increase in temperature will interfere with the

metabolism of pathogens. FEVERS ARE A GOOD THING!!!! Infectious Disease & Immunity Infectious Disease: caused by pathogens Immunity: occurs when the body

builds up a resistance to pathogens Vaccines: Weakened, dead, or parts of pathogens/antigens injected into the body to help build up immunity to a particular disease How Does this System Relate to others? The immune system works closely with the

circulatory system Endocrine System Purpose The Endocrine System controls growth, development, and metabolism;

Organs/Components Hypothalamus Part of the brain that the main link between the endocrine and nervous systems Pituitary The main gland of the endocrine system. It is stimulated by the hypothalamus when

changes in homeostasis are detected and produces chemicals and stimulates other glands. Organs/Components Thyroid Produces thyroxin, the main growth and metabolic hormone Also regulates

calcium levels in the blood Parathyroid Regulates minerals by producing PTH (parathyroid hormone) Organs/Components Adrenal Glands Prepare the body for

stress by releasing hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) norephinephrine which increases blood pressure and heart rate called corticosteroids that influence or regulate salt and

water balance in the Organs/Components Pancreas produces two important hormones insulin and glucagon: they work together to maintain a steady level of glucose, or sugar, in the blood and to keep the body supplied with fuel to produce and maintain stores of energy Ovaries

Secretes female sex hormones Testes Secretes male sex hormones How Does this System Relate to others? The endocrine system works closely with the reproductive system and the digestive system. Several hormones

originate in the brain, part of the nervous system. Reproductive System Purpose The Reproductive System produces reproductive cells; in females nurtures and

protects developing embryo Organs/Components Males Penis Testes Site of sperm production Epididymis Where sperm mature

Vas Deferens Duct where mature sperm are stored before being transported to the urethra Urethra Transports sperm out of the male

body Organs/Components Females Ovaries Where eggs mature Fallopian Tubes Tube connecting ovaries to the uterus Uterus Where a fetus develops

during pregnancy Vagina Canal leading to the How Does this System Relate to others? The reproductive system works most closely with the endocrine system (hormones)

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