Human Trafficking Culture, Demand, and Prevention Nearly 300,000 U.S. children are at risk of becoming victims of sex trafficking. (1) Did you know? 12-14 is the average age that U.S. kids are first pulled into commercial sex. (2) 83% of sex trafficking victims found in the U.S. were U.S.
citizens. (3) 1. 2. Amanda Walker-Rodriguez & Rodney Hill, Human Sex Trafficking, FED. BUREAU INVESTIGATION (Mar. 2011), http://www.fbi.gov/statsservices/publications/law-enforcementbulletin/march_2011/human_sex_trafficking Some research indicates that the average age of entry for U.S. girls is 12 to 14, while the average age for U.S. boys and transgender youth is 11 to 13. See Amanda Walker-Rodriguez and Rodney Hill, Human Sex Trafficking, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (March, 2011), available at http://www.fbi.gov/stats-services/publications/law-enforcement-bulletin/march_2011/human_sex_trafficking. See also Ernie Allen, President and CEO of the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, speaking to the House Victims Rights Caucus Human Trafficking Caucus, Cong. Rec., 111 th Cong., 2nd sess., 2010. Overview Culture: How gender roles impact our views of commercial sex What our culture and the media emphasize
How we sexualize women vs. how we sexualize men Demand: Why we are all part of the problem Demand exists because we tolerate it Human Trafficking 101 Prevention: What is the next step? Why you should care What you can do What is Human Trafficking? Sex TraffickingCommercial sex induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or the person induced to perform such act has not attained 18 years of age. Labor TraffickingThe recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person
for labor or services, through the use of force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose of subjection to involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage, or slavery. 1) Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000, Pub. L. No. 106-386 (2000), available at http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/10492.pdf. Human Trafficking in Numbers Domestically Internationally Second largest and fastest growing criminal enterprise
14,500 to 17,500 people trafficked into U.S. each year (5) (1) 27 million victims 392 cases in Midwest, 20072012 (6) (2) 1 million children exploited in commercial sex every year (3) 1)
2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Indiana law enforcement have responded to over 134 tips on possible human trafficking, 2006-June, 2014 (7) 123 victims have been served $32 billion dollars by non-profits in Indiana, 2006June, 2014 (7) (last visited Jan. 13, 2012). Administration for Children & Families, annually
U.S. DEPT. OF HEALTH &(4) HUMAN SERVICES, http://www.acf.hhs.gov/trafficking/about/index.html generated U.S. Dept. of State Trafficking in Persons Report (2012), available at http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2012/index.htm. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF STATE, THE FACTS ABOUT CHILD SEX TOURISM (2005) at p.22 (2005), available at http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/47255.pdf INTERNATIONAL LABOR ORGANIZATION (ILO), A GLOBAL ALLIANCE AGAINST FORCED LABOR (2005) at p.55, available at http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/@ed_norm/@declaration/documents/publication/wcms_081882.pdf U.S. DEPT. OF STATE TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS REPORT (2010), available at http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2010/index.htm; see also CONGRESSIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE, TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS: U.S. POLICY AND ISSUES FOR CONGRESS (2010) at p.2, available at http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/topic,4565c22535,4565c25f42b,4d2d96e62,0,USCRS,,.html. Information was obtained from the Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA). The BJA Task Forces in the Midwestern Region were located in the states of: Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. Human Trafficking: An Introduction, OFFICE OF THE INDIANA ATTORNEY GENERAL, available at www.in.gov/attorneygeneral/files/HT_3_13_12.pptx (last visited April 5, 2013). Origin and Destination Countries
UN Highlights Human Trafficking, ORIGIN & DESTINATION COUNTRIES, BBC NEWS available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_depth/6497799.stm. Culture How gender roles impact our views of commercial sex Our Culture Emphasizes: Partying Youth Power
Money Sexuality MediaHow we sexualize women in society Difference between sexuality and sexualization Sexualized female dolls targeted to girls as young as 4 years old Push-up bra bathing suits for 8-year olds Average child/teen spends 6 hours and 32 minutes with media Information on this slide taken from: American Psychological Association, Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls. (2010). Report of the APA Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls.
Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/pi/women/programs/girls/report-full.pdf MediaHow we sexualize men in society Boys will be boys Party themes that put males in roles of power and women in sexually objectifying roles Making excuses for male behavior (i.e. bachelor parties, strip clubs, etc.) Demand Why we are all part of the problem
The Pimp CultureMisconceptions that lead to Demand for Commercial Sex Demand for this crime exists because WE tolerate it Prostitutes and strippers portrayed in movies, video games and music Three 6 Mafias song Its Hard Out There for a Pimp won an Oscar in 2006 "Big Pimpin'" was the most successful single from Jay-Z's fourth album, reaching #18 on The Billboard Hot 100 and #1 on the Rhythmic Top 40
chart. Misconception: Pimps protect the girls they manage Facts: (1) Monetary quotas to avoid beatings Branding to demonstrate ownership Typically take all the money Quote from a pimp: its impossible to protect all girls from guyswe eat, drink and sleep thinking of ways to trick young girls into doing what we want. (2) 1)
2) Human Trafficking FAQs, How is Pimping a Form of Sex Trafficking?, POLARIS PROJECT, http://www.polarisproject.org/human-trafficking/humantrafficking-faqs#How is pimping a form of sex trafficking? (last visited Jan. 14, 2012). Jody Raphael & Brenda Myers-Powell, FROM VICTIMS TO VICTIMIZER: INTERVIEWS WITH 25 EX-PIMPS IN CHICAGO (2010) at 5, SCHILLER DUCANTO & FLECK FAMILY LAW CENTER OF DEPAUL UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF LAW, available at http://newsroom.depaul.edu/PDF/FAMILY_LAW_CENTER_REPORTfinal.pdf. Human Trafficking 101 Who is involved in trafficking? The recruiter gains the victims trust and then sells them for labor or to a pimp. Sometimes this is a boyfriend, a neighbor, or even a family member. The trafficker is the one who controls the victims. Making the victim fearful through abuse, threats, and lies the trafficker gains power over his/her victim.
The victim could be anyone. The consumer funds the human trafficking industry by purchasing goods and services. Often s/he is unaware that someone is suffering. The Trafficker Will likely be in a lucrative business enterprise as the heart of human trafficking is exploiting cheap labor May be part of a larger organized crime ring, or may be profiting independently Most often is the same race/ethnicity as the
victim Might be someone who knew the victim or victims family Will likely be bilingual Will likely be an older man with younger women who seems to be controlling, watching their every move, and correcting/instructing them frequently How are People Recruited? Grooming Internet, social media
Fake employment agencies Acquaintances or family Newspaper ads Front businesses Word of mouth Abduction Human Trafficking and Technology Social Networking Pimps hit social networks to recruit underage girls to engage in commercial sex The pimps "searched Facebook for attractive young girls, and sent them messages telling them
that they were pretty and asking if they would like to make some money" If a girl expressed interest, a gang member would arrange to meet up. At that point, participation stopped being voluntary. Messages provided by U.S. Department of Justice. Visualization created by http://money.cnn.com/2013/02/27/technology/social/pimps-social-networks/ index.html CNNMoney. Human Trafficking and Technology Traffickers may pose
as any of the following on social media: Escort Service Modeling Agency Dancing Opportunity Boyfriend Friend Social Networking http://money.cnn.com/2013/02/27/technology/social/pimps-social-networks/ Human Trafficking & Super Bowl 2012 Significant increase in Backpage.com escort ads leading up to the 2012 Super Bowl. (1)
68 commercial sex arrests were made before and on the 2012 Super Bowl (3) 2 human trafficking victims were identified (3) 2 other potential human trafficking victims were 1. Klaas Kids Foundation, Tackle the Trafficker Outreach and Monitoring Initiative (Feb. 3, 2011). 2. Klaas Kids Foundation, Behind closed doors. identified (3) 3. E-mail from Jon Daggy, Detective Sgt. Indianapolis Metropolitan Police (on file with author) (Feb. 17, 2012). Human Trafficking and
Technology None of these new technologies are in and of themselves harmful, but for those criminals searching for means of exploiting their victims, they provide new, efficient, and often anonymous methods. (1) Prepaid Credit Cards Prepaid Cell Phones No Age verification No identify verification
Consider anonymity provided for: 1. The person posting ads online 2. The persons depicted in those ads 3. The persons viewing those ads. 1) Mark Latonero, Human Trafficking Online: The Role of Social Networking Sites and Online Classifieds, 13 (2011) The Trafficked Person Risk factors include: Human Trafficking reaches every culture and demographic.
Regardless of their demographics, victims are vulnerable in some way, and the traffickers will use their particular vulnerability to exploit the victim. Youth Poverty Unemployment Homelessness Family backgrounds of violence, abuse, or conflict Runaways Immigration status A need to be loved
No meaningful social network A Vulnerable Life Before Victimization* Of boys and girls recruited into commercial sex: 57% had been sexually abused as children (1) 49% had been physically assaulted (1) 85% were victims of incest as girls, and 90% had been physically abused (2) Nearly half the participants in one study had been molested or raped as children or teenagers. (3) * These studies considered various forms of commercial sex, not only sex trafficking. Due to the hidden nature of the crime, little research is available strictly on trafficking. However, it should be
noted that anyone used in commercial sex who is under 18 or is being forced or coerced is a victim of trafficking. 1) Melissa Farley & Howard Barkan, Prostitution, Violence Against Women, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, 27 WOMEN & HEALTH 37-49 (1998), available at http://www.prostitutionresearch.com/ProsViolPosttrauStress.html. 2) Hunter, S.K., Prostitution is Cruelty and Abuse to Women and Children, 1 MICH. J. GENDER & L. 1-14 (1993). 3) Jennifer K. Wesely, Growing up Sexualized: Issues of Power and Violence in the Lives of Female Exotic Dancers, 8 No. 10 Violence Against Women, 1182, 1192 (October, 2002). Child Trafficking Victims Experience High Levels of Adversity and Stress Jim Mercy, Division of Violence Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, The Public Health Implications of Child Sex Trafficking (PowerPoint presentation). The Adverse Childhood Experience Studies Jim Mercy, Division of Violence Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention, The Public Health Implications of Child Sex Trafficking (PowerPoint presentation). Epidemiologists found that the average age of death for those involved in prostitution was 34 years old. (1) Violence in Commercia l Sex 1. 2. 3.
Leading cause of death was homicide 19% Drugs 18% Accidents 12% Alcohol related causes 9% HIV/immunodeficiency syndrome 8% The workplace homicide rate in prostitution is many times higher than in the occupations that had the highest workplace homicide rates in the U.S. (2) Results from one study revealed that while in prostitution, 82% of participants had been
physically assaulted, 83% had been threatened with a weapon, 68% had been raped, 84% reported current or past homelessness. (3) John J. Potterat, Devon D. Brewer2, Stephen Q. Muth, Richard B. Rothenberg, Donald E. Woodhouse, John B. Muth, Heather K. Stites & Stuart Brody, Mortality in a Long-term Open Cohort of Prostitute Women, 159 American Journal of Epidemiology 778-785 (2004), available at http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/159/8/778.full Prostitution: 204 per 100,000; Female Liquor Store Workers: 4 per 100,000; Male Taxi Drivers: 29 per 100,000. John J. Potterat, Devon D. Brewer2, Stephen Q. Muth, Richard B. Rothenberg, Donald E. Woodhouse, John B. Muth, Heather K. Stites & Stuart Brody, Mortality in a Long-term Open Cohort of Prostitute Women, 159 American Journal of Epidemiology 778-785 (2004), available at http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/159/8/778.full Melissa Farley & Howard Barkan, Prostitution, Violence Against Women, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, 27 Women & Health 37-49 (1998), available at http://www.prostitutionresearch.com/ProsViolPosttrauStress.html Why dont trafficked persons escape? Fear of being deported May be in danger if they try to leave Traffickers have strong psychological and
physiological hold on them Fear for the safety of their families Fear of the U.S. legal system May not be able to support themselves on their own It is our responsibility to protect and assist people being exploited. On average, they first bought sex at 21 years old (1) Age of first purchased sex ranged from ages 11 to 49 The Consumer The John
(1) Peer Pressure was a primary reason they first bought sex (1) Significantly more sex buyers than non-sex buyers had visited a strip club (2) Frequent Johns are more likely to be married/older (2)
1) 2) Melissa Farley, Emily Schuckman, Jacqueline M. Golding, Kristen Houser, Laura Jarrett, Peter Qualliotine, Michele Decker, COMPARING SEX BUYERS WITH MEN WHO DONT BUY SEX: YOU CAN HAVE A GOOD TIME WITH THE SERVITUDE VS. YOURE SUPPORTING A SYSTEM OF DEGRADATION (2011) at p. 14 PROSTITUTION RESEARCH & EDUCATION, available at http://www.prostitutionresearch.com/pdfs/Farleyetal2011ComparingSexBuyers.pdf. BUYING SEX: A SURVEY OF MEN IN CHICAGO (2004) at 1, CHICAGO COAL. FOR THE HOMELESS, available at http://www.enddemandillinois.org/research. The Consumer 1. Pornography, fantasy, and violence 2. Internet availability and justification (1) (2) 3. Violence and control in commercial
sex (2) 1. Melissa Farley, Emily Schuckman, Jacqueline M. Golding, Kristen Houser, Laura Jarrett, Peter Qualliotine, Michele Decker, COMPARING SEX BUYERS WITH MEN WHO DONT BUY SEX: YOU CAN HAVE A GOOD TIME WITH THE SERVITUDE VS. YOURE SUPPORTING A SYSTEM OF DEGRADATION (2011) at p. 14 PROSTITUTION RESEARCH & EDUCATION, available at http://www.prostitutionresearch.com/pdfs/Farleyetal2011ComparingSexBuyers.pdf. 2. Chicago Alliance Against Sexual Exploitation ResearchOur Great Hobby An Analysis of Online Networks for Buyers of Sex in Illinois (2013), available at http://g.virbcdn.com/_f2/files/22/FileItem-276524-FinalWeb_OurGreatHobby.pdf. Male Entitlement Paid sexis all about entitlement, power, and control, and johns look for brief encounters where they can let go and freely express their most selfish desires without having to worry about anyone elses or about being nice.
1. Quote taken from Chicago Alliance Against Sexual Exploitation ResearchOur Great Hobby An Analysis of Online Networks for Buyers of Sex in Illinois (2013), available at http://g.virbcdn.com/_f2/files/22/FileItem-276524FinalWeb_OurGreatHobby.pdf. 2. Malarek, Victor. 2009. The johns: Sex for sale and the men who buy it. New York: Arcade Publishing. 3. Hughes, Donna. 2004. Best practices to address the demand side of sex trafficking. Womens Studies Program, University of Rhode Island, August 2004. Consequences for the John Medical Estimated 19 million sexually transmitted infections in the U.S. (1) Can lead to: liver cancer, cervical cancer, infertility Few female commercial sex workers visit STD clinics because of discrimination, fear of legal consequences, loss of confidentiality. Some STDs are incurable
1. 2012 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance, CDC, available at http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats10/trends.htm. Consequences for the John Legal IC 35-42-3.5: (d) A person who knowingly or intentionally pays, offers to pay, or agrees to pay money or other property to another person for an individual who the person knows has been forced into: (1) forced labor; (2) involuntary servitude; or (3) prostitution; commits human trafficking, a Level 5 felony. (1)
IC 35-45-4-3: Patronizing a Prostitute is a Class A misdemeanor, but a Class D (level 6) felony if the person has two prior convictions 1. 2. (2) Human and Sexual Trafficking, Ind. Code 35-42-3.5, available at http://www.in.gov/legislative/ic/code/title35/ar42/ch3.5.pdf. Criminal Code Felony reclassification effective July 1, 2014. Patronizing a Prostitute, IC 35-45-4-3, available at www.in.gov/legislative/ic/code/title35/ar45/ch4.html. Criminal Code Felony reclassification effective July 1, 2014. Prevention Public Awareness Outreach Education Protection
TVPA A comprehensive law T-Visas Certification Benefits and Services to Victims Prosecution Created federal crime of trafficking New law enforcement tools and efforts Indiana Law: IC 35-42-3.5-1 Trafficking:
A person who, by force, threat of force, or fraud engages a person in: Forced Labor Involuntary Servitude Marriage Prostitution Participation in Sexual Conduct Prosecutors dont have to prove force when a minor under the age of 18 is being trafficked Restitution is available to trafficking victims Trafficking victims may also have a civil cause of action to recover other damages from the trafficker Human and Sexual Trafficking, Ind. Code 35-42-3.5, available at http://www.in.gov/legislative/ic/code/title35/ar42/ch3.5.pdf Prevention
What are the next steps? Why do I care? Human trafficking in in OUR community and is GROWING. The AVERAGE age of entry into commercial sex is 12-14 years old. We have failed to protect these children. They could be your daughter, your sister, your brother, your friend. What Can You Do? Commit to NOT participating in the commercial sex industry Sign the Pledge
To not purchase or participate To hold friends accountable and demand their respect To take action on behalf of those vulnerable to sex trafficking Take part in creating cultural change Encourage education for youth on topics such as healthy relationships, self-identity and life skills Support local organizations that serve victims of human trafficking What Can You Do? Talk about it The direct connection between prostitution, lap dancing, and strip clubs and missing and exploited children In interviews, Johns admit that they would be deterred from buying sex if they were held criminally and socially
accountable Speak out Dont tolerate or use the lingo When prostitution is portrayed as a choice or funny in movies, talk about the reality Dont glorify the pimp culture Share the facts with others If you believe someone is a victim of Human Trafficking. 911 Then Indianapolis Trafficked Persons Assistance Program 24-hour hotline: 1-800-928-6403 National Human Trafficking Resource
Center Hotline Number: 1-888-373-7888 or send a text to BeFree (233733) If a child may be in danger, the Indiana Child Abuse and Neglect Hotline: 1-800800-5556
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