Ideology -

Ideology -

Ideology & Society 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 2 1 4 Marxist Tradition and Jameson Outline 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 Starting Questions Central Debates in Marxism after Marx Althusser on Ideology Jameson on Interpretation

2 1 4 Starting Questions I. Basics: What are the central issues of debate engaged by bot 0011 0010 1010 1101 and 0001 Jameson? 0100 1011 h Althusser What is ideology as it is defined by Althusser? What are Jamesons views of Marxist interpretation? How does Althusser revise Marxist tradition by conne cting it with structuralism and psychoanalysis? How does Jameson engage Bakhtin and structuralis m in his theory of interpretation? II.

2 1 4 What makes Bakhtin and Foucault related to Marxism , and what separates the two from the latter? How do Bakhtin, Foucault and Althusser describe soc iety or social formation differently? How is discourse or power defined by Foucault simil ar to or different from ideology as Althusser defines i t? After Marx: History 1. Vulgar Marxism Leninism and0100 the 1011 Second International 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001

simplification and indoctrination of Marx (e.g. ideology = false consciousness) Zhdanovism (Reflectionism); revolution (Trotskyism) Stalinism Russian Formalism (Mikhail Bakhtin ) 2 1 4 2. Western Marxism (e.g. Frankfurt School) 3. Poststructuralist (scientific) turnAlthusser, ( T. Eagleton) 4. American (F. Jameson) and British Marxism (R. Williams and T. Eagleton) 5. Post-Marxist (E. Laclau and C Mouffe)against it s totalizing schema After Marx: Historical Turning Points

0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 [October 1917 Bolshevik Revolution] German Id eology published in 1920s. Stalinism; party = pr oletariat; dogmatization of Marx Western Marxism May 1968(// civil rights movements in the States) Traditional Marxism cannot account for this new social formation, or cultural revolution. Western Marxism gets to dominate as well as b e transformed; Foucaults turn (from structuralist or discourse a pproach) to power and domination. 2 1 4 After Marx: Central Issues for

Debate 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 Determinism, economic determinism Reflectionism (1) social homology; (2) literature refl ecting society and serving Communist causes. (te ndentious or not) Base and Super Structure; Literature/Culture and s ociety (and the role of Marxist criticism) Definitions of class, exploitation and capitalism, po ssibilities of revolution ( cultural revolution) Definitions of ideology negative or positive, its infl uence on human subjects and interrelations with di scourse. 2 1 4 After Marx: Central Debates (2) 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011

Determinism Scientific Marxism mo re economistic e.g. Althusser, New Left Review (Alvin Gouldner The Two Marxisms) Voluntarism or humanism critical theory rejects the base-superstructure meta phor in favor of a less well -defined totality. e.g. Lukacs, The Frankfurt school Raymond Willia ms, etc. 2 1 4

The persistent: the dialectics (in both action and thinking). Engels Natural Dialectics : Western Marxism 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 reacted against Leninism; Georg Lukcs, Antonio Gramsci 1891-1937, the Frankfurt School in Germany and the existential Marxists in France after World War II. Supplement classical Marxism with existentialism o r psychoanalysis. Shifts the attention of critical theory away from the means and relations of production toward issues o f everyday life and culture. (source: Mark Poster 2 1

4 Ideology: different views Engels: ideology = false consciousness and ign orance 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 Lenin: bourgeois vs. socialist ideology Bakhtin: denies the distinction between the intri nsic and the extrinsic; Both consciousness and i deology are semiotic, whether in the form of "inn er speech" or in the process of verbal interaction with others, or in mediated forms like writing and art. Gramsci: "historically organic ideologies + r epressive, arbitrary ideology Althusser: has material base; constitute subjecti vities and their imaginary relations with society t

o ensure the power of the dominant group 2 1 4 Ideology: different views (2) 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 Foucault -1. Power does not just reproduce relation s of production; more pluralistic, localiz ed. (e.g. the carceral) 2. Discourse// ideology: constitute subject 3. Against ideology, because 2 1 4

1) Ideology implies an opponent -- truth. 2) ideology stands in a secondary position rel ative to something which functions as its b ase, as its material economic determinant. Althusser 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 Anti-Humanism (like Levi-Strauss, Lacan, Fouc ault, Derrida); Structuralist Marxism, renovation of historical materialism. (social formation a more de-cen tered view of social causality) Separates Ideology from sciencedivide Marx s work into three periods: ideological, transitio nal and scientific Borrow from Freud and Lacan: the Imaginary (ideology); mirror stage 2 1

4 Jameson "On Interpretation" 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 dialectical criticism & metacommentary mediation, three levels of interpretation; History Issues for Debate 2 1 4

metacommentary -- "Interpretation is here construed as an essenti ally allegorical act, which consists in rewriting a given text in terms of a particular interpretive m aster code." (10) -- will always recognise the historical origins of it s own concepts, the "master codes" it uses, and will never allow the concepts to ossify and beco me insensitive to the presuure of reality. --will seek to unmask the inner form of a genre or body of texts and will work from the surface o f a work inward to the level where literary form i s deeply related to the concrete. 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 2 1 4 Three levels' of Causality -0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011

Jameson's criticism of Althusser 1.mechanical causality (billiard ball causality) applicable to analysis of local events 2. Hegel's and Stalin's "expressive causality" --homogeniety of the levels and totalization 3. Structural causality Althussers 2 1 4 Mediation revised view of social totality 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 Mediation is the classical dialectical term for the establishment of relationship between, say, the f ormal analysis of a work of art and its social grou nd, or between the internal dynamics of the politi

cal state and its economic base. -- a process of transcoding: as the invention of a set of terms, the strategic choice of a particular c ode or language, such that the same terminology can be used to analyze and articulate two quite d istinct types of objects or "text," . . . (40) 2 1 4 Mediation (2) revised view of social totality 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 Different kinds of mediation 2 1

1. Through separation and differentiation -- structur al causality 2. through identification -- expressive causality "Althusserian structural causality is therefore just as fundamentally a practice of mediation as is th e expressive causality to which it is opposed." (4 1) 4 Homology vs. ultimate determinism 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 Use contemporary materialist studies of Language as an example to argue agai nst simple homology; Use Greimas semiotic to analyze the d eep structure of language (semiotic rect anglebased on the principles of contr adiction and opposition p. 46)

2 1 4 Ideology and Lukacs concept of t otality as methodolgy 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 Ideology strategies of containment Totality a methodological standard. Totalization a way to unmask ideology as st rategies of containment. Poststructualism (e.g. Derrida, Deleuze, etc.) reconfirm the status of the concept of totality by their very reaction against it. (53) The multiplicity and discontinuity found by po ststructuralist readers should be reunified if n ot at the level of work itself, then at the level o f its process of production. . . (The former an initial moment of an Althusserian exegesis .

2 1 4 three horizons of criticism 1. immanent analysis 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 Text as a symbolic act; how history enters a text as an absent cause or s ubtext (1945- 56) Semiotic rectangle // ideological closure; 2. socio-discourse analysis

3. Historical reading 2 1 4 class as relational, Text as parole in class discourse as langue dial ogical ideologemes Cultural revolution both synchronic and diachro nic Ideology of formcontradictions produced by var ied sign systems Text as a Symbolic Act 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011

Caduveo girl by Guido Boggiani (source) Construing formal pa tterns as a symbolic enactment of the soci al within the formal a nd aesthetic. 2 1 4 History 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 1. as an absent cause: "it [History] is inaccessibl e except through textual forms. amd . . . our ap proach to it and to the Real itself necessarily p asses through its prior textualization, its narrati

vization in the political unconscious." (33/1946) 2 1 4 -- History as Necessity: "History is what hurts, i t is what refuses desire and set inexorable limit s to individual as well as collective praxis. . . Hi story as ground and untranscendable horizon. . . " (102/1959) Issues for Debate 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 Do you agree with Jamesons analysis of the thr ee levels of social causality? Do you agree with Jameson that behind the plur alist social institutions, society itself is a totality, a seamless web, a single inconceivable and tran sindividual process (p. 41); that behind historica

l events, there is History? Do you agree that mediation, or trans-coding+as similation+differentiation, is all thats needed in c rossing disciplines and social levels? 2 1 4 References 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 Mark Poster. Foucault, Marxism and History First pu blished 1984 by Polity Press, Cambridge, in associati on with Basil Blackwell, Oxford. 2 1 4

David McLellan. Ideology. Buckingham: Open UP, 1 st Ed. 1989, 2nd Ed. 1995.

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