IE506Lec1 - web.deu.edu.tr

IE506Lec1 - web.deu.edu.tr

MHENDSLK MHENDSLK ET, ET, ULUSAL ULUSAL SAYGINLIK SAYGINLIK VE VE REKABET REKABET GC GC Ali Ali Rza Rza Kaylan Kaylan [email protected]

[email protected] Birinci Ulusal Mhendislik Kongresi ve Mhendislik Dekanlar Konseyi 8. Toplants 20-22 Mays 2004 1 KAPSAM KAPSAM Temel TemelKavramlar Kavramlar Ahlak Ahlakve veEtik EtikNedir? Nedir?

Mhendislik Nedir? Mhendislik Nedir? B..nde B..ndeEtik EtikBilinlenmesi Bilinlenmesive veEtik EtikAltyaps Altyaps Mhendislik MhendislikEtii EtiiKurallar Kurallar Mhendislik

And Mhendislik And Etik EtikKurullar Kurullar Mhendislik MhendislikEtii EtiiEitimi Eitimi Kresel KreselRekabet RekabetGc Gc Ynetiim Ynetiimlkeleri

lkeleri neriler neriler 2 MHENDSLK ET TOPLUMSAL GVENLK, REFAH VE GELMENN NKOULU Ahlak nedir? Doru, iyi ve adil deerlendirme yapmamz salayan temel kural ve inanlar Etik nedir? Ahlak anlaymz yanstan karar ve davranlar Mhendislik Etii Kurallar (Code of Ethics of

Engineering): Mhendislik mesleinin uygulanmasnda neyin yaplmas, neyin yaplmamas gerektii konusunda yol gsterir. 3 MHENDSLK ET: TOPLUMSAL GVENLK, REFAH VE GELMENN NKOULU Mhendis (Engineer): Ingeniatorem: cat etmede yaratc olan kii Teknoloji: Techne: Sanat ya da hner

Logia: Bilim ya da alma 4 MHENDSLK ET: TOPLUMSAL GVENLK, REFAH VE GELMENN NKOULU Mhendisler, Mteri gereksinim ve beklentilerini en uygun ekilde karlayacak rn ve hizmetleri, En kaliteli, en ucuz ve en ksa zamanda retmeyi ve sunmay hedefler. Sz konusu rnn tasarm, retim, kullanm ve elden karma aamalarn ieren toplam yaam evrimi sresince gvenli olmas ve evreye zarar vermemesi nemle zerinde durulmas gereken konulardr. Mhendisler kaynaklarn etkin ve verimli

kullanm yansra, srdrlebilirlik sorunlar, sosyal ve kltrel boyutlar zerinde de dururlar. 5 MHENDSLK ET: LGL KURULULAR Ulusal Mhendis Odalarnn Avrupa Federasyonu (FEANI European Federation of National Engineering Associations) 27 lke Avrupada 2 Milyonun zerinde mhendis Ama: Avrupa mhendisi niteliklerinin tannmas, mhendislerin toplumdaki yeri, rol ve sorumluluklarnn belirlenip, glendirilmesi. EUR ING : Profesyonel Avrupa Mhendisi Simgesi 6

MHENDSLK ET: LGL KURULULAR FEANI Mhendislik Etii Kurallar Kiisel Etik (Personal Ethics) Mesleki Etik (Professional Ethics) Sosyal Sorumluluk (Social Responsibility) 7 MHENDSLK ET: LGL KURULULAR FEANI Mhendislik Etii Kurallar Kiisel Etik (Personal Ethics) The Engineer shall maintain his competence at the highest level, with a view to providing excellence of services in accordance with what is regarded as good practice

in his profession and having regard to the laws of the country in which he is working. His professional integrity and intellectual honesty shall be the guarantees of his impartiality of analysis, judgment and consequent decision. He shall consider himself bound in conscience by any business confidentiality agreement into which he has freely entered. He shall not accept any payment except those agreed with his relevant employer. He shall display his commitment to the engineering profession by taking part in the activities of its Associations, notably those which promote the profession and contribute to the continuing training of their members. He shall use only titles to which he has a right. 8 MHENDSLK ET: LGL KURULULAR FEANI Mhendislik Etii Kurallar Mesleki Etik (Professional Ethics)

The Engineer shall accept assignments only within the area of his competence. Beyond this limit, he shall seek the collaboration of appropriate experts. He is responsible for organizing and executing his assignments. He must obtain a clear definition of the services required of him. Executing his assignments, he shall take all necessary steps to overcome any difficulties encountered whilst ensuring the safety of persons and property. He shall take remuneration corresponding to the service rendered and the responsibilities assumed. He shall try to ensure that the remuneration of each be consonant with the service rendered and the responsibilities assumed. He strives for a high level of technical achievement, which will also contribute to and promote a healthy and agreeable environment for his fellowmen. 9 MHENDSLK ET: LGL KURULULAR

FEANI Mhendislik Etii Kurallar Sosyal Sorumluluk (Social Responsibility) The Engineer shall Respect the personal rights of his superiors, colleagues and subordinates by taking due account of their requirements and aspirations, provided they conform to the laws and ethics of their professions, Be conscious of nature, environment, safety and health and work to the benefit and welfare of mankind, Provide the general public with clear information, only in his field of competence, to enable a proper understanding of technical matters of public interest, Treat with the utmost respect the traditional and cultural values of the countries in which he exercises his profession. 10 MHENDSLK ET: LGL KURULULAR

ABET Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology Mhendislik ltleri 2000 Mesleki ve Etik Sorumluluu Anlamak (nc lt f kk) Dier klar (d, g, h, j) arasnda da ilgili ltler var. Takm almas letiim Mhendislik zmlerinin toplumsal etkilerini anlamak Gncel konularla ilgili bilgi ABET Mhendislik Etii Kurallar 11 B..nde ETK BLNLENMES

ve ETK ALTYAPISI B.. Mhendislik Fakltesi 1999 Mhendislik Etii Kurallar Web sitesi Akademik yln balangcnda yaplan tanma toplantlar 2003 Mhendislik And B.. Etik Kurullar

12 MHENDSLK ET KURALLARI (CODE OF ETHICS OF ENGINEERS) ABET Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology TEMEL LKELER Mhendisler, i. Bilgi ve becerilerini insanlarn refahn arttrmak iin kullanarak, ii. Topluma, iverenlerine ve mterilerine drst ve tarafsz bir ekilde dorulukla hizmet ederek, iii. Mhendislik mesleinin yetkinlik ve saygnln arttrmaya abalayarak ve iv. Kendi dallarndaki teknik ve mesleki kurulular destekleyerek

mhendislik mesleinin saygnlk, onur ve gvenilirliini destekler ve arttrrlar. 13 MHENDSLK ET KURALLARI (CODE OF ETHICS OF ENGINEERS) ABET Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology TEMEL KURALLAR 1. Mhendisler mesleki grevlerini yerine getirirken toplumun salk, gvenlik ve refahn hereyin stnde tutarlar. 2. Mhendisler sadece kendi yetkinlik alanlarnda hizmet sunarlar. 3. Mhendisler kamu aklamalarn tarafsz ve doru bir ekilde yaparlar. 4. Mhendisler her iveren ve mteri iin mesleki konularda, gvenilir ve doru bir temsilci olarak davranrlar ve kar

atmasndan saknrlar. 14 MHENDSLK ET KURALLARI (CODE OF ETHICS OF ENGINEERS) ABET Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology TEMEL KURALLAR 5. Mhendisler bakalaryla haksz rekabet etmezler ve meslekte tannmalarn sunduklar hizmetin mkemmellii ile salarlar. 6. Mhendisler meslein saygnlk, onur ve gvenilirliini destekleyip arttracak ekilde davranrlar. 7. Mhendisler, meslek yaamlar sresince kendi mesleki gelimelerine srekli devam ederler ve denetimleri altndaki mhendislerin mesleki adan gelimeleri iin olanaklar salarlar.

15 16 ETK KURULLARI 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Etik st Kurulu nsan Haklar ve Aratrma Etik Kurulu evre Etik Kurulu

Kurumsal Hayvan Bakm Kurulu Akademik D likiler Kurulu renci Etik Kurulu niversite Yaam Etik Kurulu 17 MHENDSLK ET ETM Mhendislie giri dersleri Mezuniyet projeleri Meslek dersleri Temiz ve gvenli retim ve tketim politikalar Risk ynetimi

rn gvenilirlii Yasal sorumluluk sorunlar Bilimsel etik Fikri mlkiyet haklar Kopyalama (plagiarism) Gizlilik (confidentiality) 18 MHENDSLK ET ETM Vaka almalar Rol alma Siz olsaydnz, nasl davranrdnz? kar atmas: alt veya danmanlk yapt kurum veya kiiler adna verecei kararlarn, kiisel menfaatleriyle akmas durumu.

Etik ikilem: Birbiriyle elien farkl iki veya daha fazla deer arasnda seim yapma zorunluluunun kt durumlar. 19 MHENDSLK ET ETM Vaka almas rnei: Fikri Mlkiyet Haklar Senaryosu Ortam: nemli ticari deeri olan yeniliki teknoloji retilen MIT Laboratuvar renciler X1, X2, X3 : Yksek lisans rencileri ve laboratuvarda aratrma grevlileri. Profesr Y: Sanayi destekli projenin yrtcs. Proje ayni zamanda NSF tarafndan desteklenmekte. Destekci Firma: Projenin ticari deeri belirli bir olgunlua ulatnda, pazarda

bu konuda ilk olmay ve yatrmn geri kazanmay dnmekte. NSF: Projeyi yeni bir alanda bilgi retimi iin ender bir frsat olarak grmekte. rencilerin mezuniyeti yaklamakta ve bir yemekli toplantda mezuniyet sonras arkada yeni bir irket kurmaya karar verirler ve son projelerindeki bilgi birikimlerini kullanmay planlamaktadrlar. 20 KRESEL REKABET SIRALAMASI Dnya Ekonomi Forumu Kresel Rekabet Program 2003 Katlm: 102 lke 2002 Katlm: 80 lke Byme Rekabet ndeksi (Growth Competitiveness Index GCI) Jeffrey D. Sachs (Columbia Univ.), W. McArthur (Earth Inst.) letme Rekabet ndeksi

(Business Competitiveness Index BCI) Michael Porter (Harvard Univ.) Kaynak: Global Competitiveness Report, 2003-2004 21 KRESEL REKABET SIRALAMASI Byme Rekabet ndeksi Makroekonomik evre ndeksi Kamu Kurumlarnn Kalitesi ndeksi Teknoloji ndeksi Core Innovators: En az 15 patent/milyon kii Non-core Innovators letme Rekabet ndeksi (Business Competitiveness Index BCI)

Michael Porter (Harvard Univ.) 22 KRESEL REKABET SIRALAMASI BYME REKABET NDEKS (GCI) Kaynak: Global Competitiveness Report, 2003-2004 23 KRESEL REKABET SIRALAMASI LETME REKABET NDEKS (BCI) Kaynak: Global Competitiveness Report, 2003-2004 24

YNETM (GOVERNANCE) LKELER Aklk/saydamlk (Openness), Katlm (Participation), Sorgulanabilirlik (Accountability), Etkinlik (Effectiveness), Uyum/tutarllk (Coherence). Bu ilkeler kurum ve toplumsal kltrmzn zne yerletiinde, kurumsal ve toplumsal etik altyapy salamlatracaktr.

Kaynak: European Governance, Commission of the European Communities, 2001 25 EFQM MKEMMELLK MODEL TEMEL KAVRAMLAR Sonulara Ynlendirme

Mteri Odakllk Liderlik ve Amacn Tutarll Sreler ve Verilerle Ynetim alanlarn Gelitirilmesi ve Katlm Srekli renme, Yenilikilik ve yiletirme birliklerinin Gelitirilmesi Toplumsal Sorumluluk Kaynak: KalDer Trkiye Kalite Dernei 26 EFQM MKEMMELLK MODEL TEMEL KAVRAMLAR

Liderlik ve Amacn Tutarll ...Kurulularna, paydalar iin sekin bir kimlik ve ekicilik oluturacak deerleri, etii, kltr ve ynetiim altyapsn kurarlar... 27 EFQM MKEMMELLK MODEL KRTERLER 1. Liderlik 1a. Liderler kuruluun misyon, vizyon ve deerlerini olutururlar ve bir Mkemmellik kltr dorultusunda rnek olurlar. Kurum kltrn destekleyen deerler, etik kurallar, ve toplumsal sorumluluklar gelitirme ve bunlarn yaama geirilmesi

srecinde rnek olma... 28 YNETM ALIMALARI Dnya Bankas uzmanlar Kaufmann, Kraay ve Zoido-Labaton tarafndan 160 lkenin iyi ynetiim ynnden konumlar tespit edilmeye allmtr. Temel iyi ynetiim kriterleri: Hukukun stnl Katlm Hesap verilebilirlik Siyasal istikrar Devlet hizmetlerinde kalite Reglasyonlarn (vergi vs.) bykl ve yk Yolsuzluk

29 YNETM ALIMALARI Ynetiim kalitesi indeksi (Governance quality index) 80 lkede ynetiim kalitesini lmeye almlardr. Sonu: Ynetiim kalitesi indeks puanna gre grup 50-100 Ynetiimin iyi olduu lkeler svire, Kanada, Hollanda, Almanya, ABD, Avusturya, Finlandiya, sve, Avustralya 40-50 Ynetiimin orta dzeyde olduu lkeler Trkiye: 46 puan (48. Sra) 40 ve aa Ynetiim kt olduu lkeler Liberya, Sudan, Ruanda, Zaire, ran, Malawi, Sierre Leone, Senegal,

Yemen, Uganda Kaynak: Huther, Jeff and Anwar Shah., Applying a Simple Measure of Good Governance to the Debate on Fiscal Decentralization (unpublished mimeo), World Bank Research Paper, 30 No: 1894. Washington DC: World Bank. 1998. REKABET STNL Rekabet Gc Yaratclk Yenilikilik Verimlilik 0

Performans Etik Altyap 31 POKA-YOKE (HATA NLEYC) RN TASARIMI 32 POKA-YOKE (HATA NLEYC) ETK ALTYAPI TASARIMI BLNLENME ETM SSTEM TASARIMI

33 NERLER 1. ETK TEKNK TERMLER SZLNN HAZIRLANMASI Academic Integrity Accountabilitiy Complainant Confidentiality Copyright Descriptive Ethics Falsification Fraud Intellectual Property Liability

Normative Ethics Patent Quality of Life Quality of Work Life Research Ethics Research Misconduct Safety Scientific Misconduct Standard Trade Secret Trust Value judgement Whistle-Blower Bribe Conflict of Interest

Fabrication Human Rights Moral Values Plagiarism Reliability Risk Security 34 NERLER 1. ETK TEKNK TERMLER SZLNN HAZIRLANMASI Academic Integrity: Akademik drstlk Accountability: Surgulanabilirlik, Hesap verebilirlik Bribe: Rvet

Complainant: Sorun belirten Confidentiality: Gizlilik Conflict of Interest: kar atmas Copyright: Telif Hakk Descriptive Ethics: Betimsel Etik Fabrication: Dzmece Bilgi retimi Falsification: Tahrifat, Bilgi Bozmak Fraud: Sahtekarlk Human Rights: nsan Haklar 35 NERLER 1. ETK TEKNK TERMLER SZLNN HAZIRLANMASI Intellectual Property: Fikri Haklar

Liability: Yasal Sorumluluk, Ykmllk Moral Values: Ahlak Deerleri Normative Ethics: Etik Deerlendirme Patent: Patent Plagiarism: Kopyalama Quality of Life: Yaam Kalitesi Quality of Work Life: alma () Ortam Kalitesi Reliability: Gvenilirlik Research Ethics: Aratrma Etii Research Misconduct: Aratrmada yanl (kt) davran Risk: Risk 36 NERLER 1. ETK TEKNK TERMLER SZLNN

HAZIRLANMASI Safety: Gvenlik Scientific Misconduct: Bilimsel yanl davran Security: Gvenlik Standard: Standart Trade Secret: Ticari Sr Trust: Gven Value judgement: Deer Yarglar Whistle-Blower: Ddk (Islk) alan 37 NERLER II. MHENDSLK ET VAKA ALIMALARI BANKASI OLUTURULMASI

III. ETK ETMNDE WEB ORTAMINDAN YARARLANILMASI 38 REKABET GC STNL VE ULUSAL SAYGINLIK Toplumdaki gven a nlenmesi Daha mutlu, daha fazla alp reten ve daha yksek refah dzeyine ulam yurttalar lkemizin uluslararas saygnl ve rekabet gcnn ykselmesi 39 KAYNAKA

Global Competitiveness Report, World Bank 2004 European Governance, Commission of the European Communities, Brussels, 25.7.2001 Trust in Government: Ethics Measures in OECD Countries, OECD 2000. EFQM Mkemmellik Modeli, KalDer 2003 40

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