Imperialism in Africa - Loudoun County Public Schools

Imperialism in Africa - Loudoun County Public Schools

IMPERIALISM IN AFRICA BELLRINGER: 1/20 AND 1/23 1. Pick up the papers by the door. 2. Update your ToC: 97: Notes Imperialism in Africa 98: Project: Imperialism in Africa Then and Now 3. Write down your HW: Work on your project research (if your group deems it necessary) AGENDA:

1/20 AND 1/23 1. Bellringer 2. Notes: Imperialism in Africa 3. Begin Project: Imperialism in Africa Then and Now INTRODUCTION: IMPERIALISM IN AFRICA https:// W_HIWmA AFRICA TO EUROPEANS: THE DARK CONTINENT Europe called Africa the Dark Continent racist terminology

referred to 2 things regarding Africa: 1. The people of Africa literal reason for term 2. Their alleged inferiority/ignorance in comparison to Europeans (White Mans Burden) metaphorical reason for term In reality, Africa = always had diverse groups of people w/ their own unique cultures Civilizations (Mansa Musa, Great Zimbabwe, Nile River Valley Languages (Swahili, Bantu, Zulu, Berber, etc.) Africa = actually home to the most diverse group of languages in the world Religions (animism, ancestor worship, eventually Christianity and

HISTORY OF FOREIGN INVOLVEMENT IN AFRICA Long history of outside groups involving themselves in Africa: Greeks: Controlled Egypt after conquest by Alexander the Great Romans: Ruled all areas along the Mediterranean coastline, including northern Africa Mediterranean sometimes called a Roman lake Arab traders: Converted many Africans to Islam starting in 7th century CE Europeans in general: Africa = source of slaves for the Americas from the 17th century BUT: little foreign interest in the interior of sub-Saharan Africa

AGE OF IMPERIALISM IN AFRICA BEGINS When does it start? Mid-1800s Why: Nationalism, Religion, Social Darwinism, Nationalism, Industrialization 1. DAVID LIVINGSTONE (1813-1873) Scottish missionary Lived in central Africa for 30 years in mid-1800s Explored Africa Converted many Africans to Christianity Became a source of information for Europeans on Africa Wrote books on Africa which piqued foreign interest

1871: Livingstone reported lost Found by Henry Stanley Dr. Livingstone, I presume? 2. HENRY STANLEY (1841-1904) Worked as a Welsh-American reporter Why does he matter? Found Dr. Livingstone in Africa (Dr. Livingstone, I presume?) Explored Africa (Congo River, Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria) Worked with Belgiums King Leopold II and his African colonization company

WHO KICK-STARTS AFRICAN IMPERIALISM? 3. King Leopold of Belgium Took over land in central Africa Leading role at Berlin Conference (1885) Leopolds control over Congo Free State recognized by major powers Eventually forced to give CFS to the Belgian govt Why? Because of claims of his cruelty, mistreatment of people in the Congo Free State Created European race for African colonies Scramble for Africa

THE CONFERENCE OF BERLIN When: 1884-85 Why: European leaders met here to determine how to divide up Africa amongst different European countries Result: Sets off a massive scramble for Africa European countries want to take as much land as possible to strengthen their own power and to weaken other European nations MOTIVES OF THE SCRAMBLE FOR AFRICA 1. Economic

Europeans need markets outside of Europe to sell their goods to Need for (cheap) raw materials to supply industrializatio n Use of slave labor (at least initially) 2. Political European countries want to gain more

territory for several reasons - Grow their own power - Weaken other nations Motivated by nationalism 3. Ideological White Mans Burden its the job of the superior European/white

man to bring the uncivilized natives to civilization More converts to Christianity 3 PHASES OF THE BERLIN CONFERENCE Stage 1 Stage 2 Signing of European and

ambiguous African countries treaties between sign agreements Europeans and essentially giving Africans (almost Europeans some always organized degree of to benefit the power/influence European over African countries, but this

nations fact is often disguised/hidden from the Africans Stage 3 European powers go against the treaties and/or agreements signed during Stages 1 & 2 Start to take over and colonize the people and lands

of Africa IMPERIALISM IN SOUTH AFRICA THE BRITISH IN SOUTH AFRICA Cape Colony had been under the control of the Boers Who are the Boers? Farmers of Dutch origin living in Africa (speak Afrikaans) 1815: British took Cape Colony from the Dutch Boers moved north to Transvaal and the Orange Free State (called the Great Trek) Problem with this? 1886: Dutch find Gold/diamonds in Transvaal and OFS

British moved in to try and take control of these resources 1881-1895: British attempted to take Transvaal from the Boers THE BOER WAR(S) Boer War 1: 1880-81 Fought over diamonds/gold in Transvaal/OFS Initially successful for Boers = they (temporarily) keep the British out of the Transvaal and OFS Boer War 2: 1899-1902 Total warfare used by British against Dutch Boers

Result? British win the Boer War, Part 2 Take control of most of South Africa after this (including BRITISH COLONIES IN SOUTHERN AFRICA Rhodesia Bechuanaland Became British Becomes British protectorate in protectorate in 1898

1885 after Berlin Now Zimbabwe Conference Named for Cecil Rhodes (one of the leading supporters of imperialism) Kenya Becomes British protectorate in 1888 IMPERIALISM IN NORTH

AFRICA BRITISH IN NORTH AFRICA EGYPT Technically part of the Ottoman Empire BUT: Europe has a real interest in Egypt because of the Suez Canal - Originally controlled by the French and British, who both helped finance the canal construction - Eventually Britain bought out all the shares in the canal and comes to control the canal

THE FRENCH IN NORTH AFRICA Algeria French colony in 1830 Tunis Morocco Controlled by France in 1881 West Africa Under French control in 1881

Frances control of Morocco causes problems between France and Germany before WWI Largely under French control by 1880s ISNT THERE A N Y C O U N T RY STILL FREE IN AFRICA? INDEPENDENT STATES IN AFRICA: 1.Liberia 2. Ethiopia Slave trade = outlawed in U.S. Ruled by a dynasty since 13th

Monroe decides to send century slaves back to Africa to settle a Majority practiced Coptic free country there Christianity This country Liberia Fought back successfully - The capital = Monrovia against Italian forces to (after Monroe) maintain its independence during the Scramble for Africa IMPACTS OF IMPERIALISM: Borders and

boundaries are disrupted Africans and military technology European favoritism of certain groups/tribes within Africa Who has control of the natural resources? Creation of unfair social, political, economic systems

New borders drawn by Europeans = cut through families, clans, and ethnic groups This = weakens and divides preexisting societies in Africa Africans are denied access to new military advancements Causes disagreements between Africans that did not exist before the arrival of Europeans Not the Africans Europeans control access to raw/natural materials Example: Apartheid system in South Africa COUNTRY ASSIGNMENTS: South

Africa Erin Rita Elizabeth Nathan L. Nathan M. Kenya Algeria Congo Sudan Jacob Kelly Zeenath Matthew Olivia

Sebastian Sumeya Jordan Conner Kelton Lauren Devin Eswar Cory Conrad Sade Danielle

Egypt Nathan W. Chey Jagman Dehlila Jessica

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