Zaryab Ayub, Alex Ge, Josh Herl, Jack Eckhardt Introduction In the 1500s, the land from western Africa to Southeast Asia was Muslim territory There were three Muslim empires: The Ottomans in the Middle East The Safavids in Persia The Mughals in India
In the 1700s, Muslim empires were in decline, and European powers would soon invade these areas Problems in Muslim Regions Why was there decay in Muslim areas? Central government powers lost control of powerful groups urban guilds, military elites, and nobles Corruption In some areas, scholars and religious leaders were against the
government; in others, they were friends with the state European Imperialism European countries gained the advantage over Muslim areas through military threats and diplomacy Signed trading treaties that gave them the advantage Demanded special rights for Europeans living in Muslim areas
Attempted Reform Muslim Reform Movements: 1700s and 1800s Popped up in Muslim regions in Africa and Asia Most reforms stressed:
Religious piety Strict rules for behavior Usman dan Fodio Led reform in northern Africa Muhammad Ahmad
Led reform in Sudan Announced he was the Mahdi, which was the savoir of the faith Resisted British forces Wahhabi Islamic reform movement Arabia
Rejected the schools of theology and law Wanted to capture the essence of Muhammads original teachings Revolt was put down, but the Wahhabi still exists today. Ottoman Empire at its Peak Constantinopl e/Istanbul
The Ottoman Empire Problems 1800s Pashas (provincial rules) had increased their power. Economic problems and corruption Led to the decay of the empire Revolts Nationalism ideas spread Led to internal revolts Balkans, Greeks, Serbs, Bulgarians, and Romanians gained their
independence Egypt slipped out of their control Revolts in Arabia, Lebanon, and Armenia The Ottoman Empire European countries Wanted to benefit from the Ottoman Empire
France Seized Algeria Hoped to get more territory Russia Wanted to control Bosporus and the Dardanelles Would give them access to the Mediterranean
Britain Tried to stop Russia Germany Wanted to create a Berlin-to-Baghdad railway The Ottoman Empire Reforms: Late 1700s Reorganized bureaucracy Reorganized tax collection Built railroads
Improved education Trained an army Men were sent to the West to learn Results: Improved medical care and farming Population explosion Increased tension
The Ottoman Empire Young Turks 1890s Reform movement made from liberals Overthrew the sultan in 1908 Couldnt reform due to WWI Genocide Muslim Turks accused Christians of plotting against the
empire Killed over 600,000 Armenian Christians Egypt and North Africa Egypt Early 1800s Semi-independent province of the Ottoman empire Muhammad Ali Often called the father of modern Egypt
Made successful reforms Ambitious soldier appointed by the governor Seized power in 1805 Died in 1849 Muhammads successors Lacked skills Egypt slowly came into foreign control Reforms of Muhammad Ali Political and economic reforms:
Improved tax collection Reorganized land owning system Large irrigation systems Helped farmers Expanded cotton production and encouraged the development of local industries Involved Egypt in world trade
Military reforms: Bought western military experts Built a well-trained army Conquered Sudan, Syria, and Arabia. Suez Canal Ferdinand de Lesseps French entrepreneur Organized company to build Suez Canal in 1858 Borrowed money from European countries European countries charged large interest rates to take
advantage of the Ottoman Empire 1875: Egypt was unable to pay back loans To pay debts they sold shares of the canal Britain bought shares; controlled part of the canal Suez Canal More than 100 miles long Connects Mediterranean and Red Seas Reduced trip from London, England to Bombay, India by 5,150 miles
At first, only a few ships would travel through the canal per day. The travel time through the canal averaged 40 hours. Today, oil tankers and cargo ships make up most of the canals traffic with a travel time of about 14 hours. Egypt Becomes a Protectorate Protectorate A country with its own government
controlled by an outside country 1882 Egyptian nationalists revolted against foreign influences Britain turned Egypt into a protectorate Government was still an Ottoman government Followed British policies Egypt continued to modernize Nationalist discontent causes more protests and riots Persia
The Qajar shahs Ruled Persia from 1794 to 1925 Ruled with absolute power Attempted to reform Persia Built telegraph lines and railroads Experimented with a liberal constitution Both Britain and Russia wanted Persia: Russia wanted to expand into Central Asia Britain wanted to protect its interests in India.
European Rule over Persia Discovery of oil in 1900s Both Britain and Russia wanted control of oil Persuaded Persia to give them concessions Special rights give to foreign powers. Both countries sent troops the Persia Outraged nationalists
Two groups of nationalists: One that wanted to adapt to western traditions One that hated the western government and traditions End
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