PERIOD 7: 1890-1945 TODAY/THIS WEEK IS COO COO Monday/Tuesday: 1. Reading Quiz 2. Imperialism AND Spanish American War 3. DBQ Introductions (and more instruction) 1. Context 2. Outside Evidence 3. Where to go for more guidance 4. Due Monday/Tuesday Wednesday/Thursday (I am in the building but wont be in classyou may see me in some of yours) 4. Overview into Reformers/ Muck-rakers
1. Examine some leading reformers and Progressive era leaders 2. Assignment of your specific reformer 3. Read your specific document and research your reformer in preparation for Socratic on Friday Friday - Socratic Seminar on reformers Weekend: FINISH DBQ Due Monday Read Ch. 29 DUE MONDAY Youre getting assigned a short answer on Wed/Thursday.due MONDAY! Make sure you stay on top of your week! IMPERIALISM THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR WHY IMPERIALISM? 1. Industrialization need buyers
for American goods 2. Social Darwinism, Social Gospel, White Man Burden, etc 3. Frontier Closed, we need somewhere to grow 4. Age of Imperialism around the world 5. Alfred Tyler Mahans book The Influence of Sea Power Upon History THE OPENING OF CHINA AND JAPAN Chinese civilization had traditionally been selfsufficient Centuries showed china sent more goods and
inventions to Europe than it received Trade was regulated by the Chinese imperial government Qing wanted isolationism not commercial exchange All foreign inferior merchants had to live on southern part of Canton Practices harmful to China were forbidden Export of silver or sale of Opium OPENING OF CHINA AND JAPAN Opium being grown legally in India was smuggled into China China government wanted to get rid of Opium Trade
Japan wanted NO foreign influences. Opium production in Calcutta, India, in 1900. Workers in dhotis and turbans are mixing and balling opium. OPENING OF CHINA Open Door Policy, 1899. Introduced by John Hay. China was in a bad situation as the Manchu dynasty was tottering. China was being carved up amongst the major powers as spheres of influence, not as colonies.
United States wanted to ensure Chinese territorial integrity while at the same time maintaining free trade. Secretary of State John Hay OPENING OF CHINA Open Door Policy, 1899. Hay writes notes to the six major powers (Britain, France, Russia, Germany, Japan, and the Dutch). The U.S. enjoyed the rights to advance its commercial
interests anywhere in the world, at least on terms equal to those of the other imperialist nations. Failure to do so could result in American economic sanctions or war. OPENING OF CHINA Boxer Rebellion, 1898-1900. Rioted in 1898 and 1899, killing thousands of Chinese Christians and taking control of the Chinese capital of Peking. Surrounded the foreign embassies in the major cities, essentially taking the
foreigners hostage. Manchu dynasty showed that it was unable to control its own subjects. International powers send troops to China to quell the rebellion. First time all of the major international powers agreed on something. President McKinley, without waiting for Congressional approval, sends 5,000 troops and half the Pacific fleet to China. OPENING OF JAPAN Origins. Early 1600s, Tokugawa Shogunate closes the doors of Japan to the
West. Were afraid that they were losing their national identity. Outside of a few Dutch and Chinese traders, Japan remains isolated for 250 years. Tokugawa Ieyasu http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/89/ Tokugawa_Ieyasu.jpg/575px-Tokugawa_Ieyasu.jpg OPENING OF JAPAN Japan also practiced a policy of exclusion similar to China (remember Opium war from Euro) Whaling ships in 1825 were ordered away by Japanese
officials Americans were destined to play a role in the Pacific and felt it was through Japan It was the duty of the U.S. to make Japan a civilized nation OPENING OF JAPAN Matthew Perry steamed into Edo Bay in 1853 and demanded diplomatic negotiations Japan knew they were no match for naval attacks and reluctantly signed a treaty with U.S. that opened two ports and permitted trade
INFLUENCE IN HAWAII Sugar Descendants of American missionaries engage in the cultivation of sugar. Send it to America for sale, soon dominate the market and the Hawaiian monarchy. 1875, Hawaiian sugar is duty-free in America. In return, the Hawaiian monarchy agrees not to cede any land to any other foreign power. 1887, Pearl Harbor. U.S. is given the right to build a
naval base at Pearl Harbor. Sugarcane Worker in Hawaii http://www.kauaiplantationrailway.com/ims/images/3084.23.jpg INFLUENCE IN HAWAII Queen Liliuokalani. Hawaii for Hawaiians. Tried to push out American influence. Attempted to rule as an absolute monarch. Abolished the constitution that granted special rights to the white minority. Queen Liliuokalani.
1893, coup overthrows Queen Lil. Americans take over the island under the supervision of American diplomat John L. Stevens and pineapple magnate Sanford B. Dole. 150 U.S. Marines storm the palace and depose the queen. Sets up the Pineapple Republic, with Dole as president. The republic petitions the United States for annexation. Queen Liliuokalani http://volcano.und.edu/vwdocs/Parks/hawaii/recent_events/Lilioukalani.gif
INFLUENCE IN HAWAII Question of annexation. Debate rages until 1898. Many Americans, including President Cleveland, are outraged by the use of American troops in a coup. Cleveland, however, refuses to use American troops against American citizens in the islands. Does not restore Queen Lil to the throne. Mainland sugar producers will not support annexation. Spanish-American War, 1898. Wanted to keep Hawaii out of European hands, so the American government officially annexes it. INFLUENCE IN LATIN AMERICA
First effort of the U.S. to not only assume a leadership role in international policies, but also work with the Latin American nations as equals. Bolivian Stamp Commemorating 50th Anniversary of Pan-Am Union http://www.flagsonstamps.info/bolivia375.jpg INFLUENCE IN LATIN AMERICA-CHILE Revolutionaries overthrow the
government, expressing antiYanqui sentiment. Disliked America because we refused to sell arms to them. Map of Chile http://www.cvc.org/christmas/map.gif Influence in Latin America Valparaiso incident. American sailors on shore leave are attacked by a Chilean mob, 2 killed. U.S. demands an apology and restitution to the families of the dead sailors.
The Chilean government delays and President Cleveland invites Congress to declare war. Chile backs down, but its humiliation hurts PanAmerican relations. INFLUENCE IN LATIN AMERICA-VENEZUELA Border dispute. Map of Venezuela http://www.american.edu/TED/images2/map-ven.gif Border between British Guiana and Venezuela, with Britain exaggerating its territorial claims.
Seizes the territory with military force. Venezuela is close to declaring war. Influence in Latin America Richard Olney Believed that the British occupation of the disputed territory was an invasion of Venezuela. Stated that Britain was violating the Monroe Doctrine. Britain retorted that the Monroe Doctrine has no international standing.
Richard Olney http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAolney.jpg INFLUENCE IN LATIN AMERICA If Britain did not submit the issue to international arbitration, the U.S. would side with Venezuela and declare war. Britain laughed it off, but Congress appropriated $100K for a commission to research the claim and $30 million increase in the military budget.
Monroe Doctrine http://www.mexicolore.co.uk/uploadimages/169_02_2.jpg INFLUENCE IN LATIN AMERICA Britain started to realize the seriousness of the situation and backs down. Did not want war with the United States at any cost. Would hurt trade relations. More worried about growing German power than American power. Canada (a British possession) was vulnerable to American attack. To fight would be an absurdity as well as a crime.
QUESTIONS OVER HAWAII/CHINA? 6, 7, 8 MAKING PREDICTIONS Well, I hardly know which to take first! CUBANS IN REVOLT American tariffs on sugar cane hurt Cuban economic stability. Frustrated Cubans used hard economic times to mount an insurrection The Insurectos did everything within their power to expel the Spanish. The Americans sided with the revolutionary underdogs
According to H.C.Lodge they were in the line of the Panama Canal. Why would America be so interested in a canal in Panama? CUBANS IN REVOLT Influence in Latin America-Cuba Spanish General Valeriano Weyler. Nicknamed the Butcher. Becomes governor of Cuba. General Valeriano Weyler http://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/img/wey.jpg
Wants to end the rebellion. To break supplies and troops, Weyler sends the rural population to reconcentration camps. Thousands die to poor conditions, brutality, and disease. INFLUENCE IN LATIN AMERICA-CUBA Public sympathy in the United
States. Cubans were fighting the good fight against an Old World Power. Cuban rebels were exaggerating reports of Cuban horrors in order to drum up American support. Cuban Reconcentration Camp Guards http://www.eldesastredel98.com/fotos/fuerte2.jpg INFLUENCE IN LATIN AMERICA-CUBA
http://www.historyofcuba.com/images/race/Cane.jpg Cuban Sugar Plantation American business interests, with sugar plantations ($50 million), tourism, and tobacco. INFLUENCE IN LATIN AMERICA-CUBA The Yellow Press. Two largest newspaper owners, William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer, are competing for new readers. Best way to attract new
customers was to sensationalize the headlines and incidents. Told tales of Spanish cruelty in Cuba with attention-grabbing headlines. Joseph Pulitzer & William Randolph Hearst http://www.notablebiographies.com/images/uewb_08_img0576.jpg http://www.zpub.com/sf/history/willh.gif YELLOW JOURNALISM!! The American people dove into the plight of the Cuban revolutionaries. Stories of Spanish atrocities sold papers in the fierce competition for circulation between Hearst and Pulitzer.
You Furnish the Pictures, and Ill Furnish the War Hearst Breaking News #1- The De Lme letter Spanish Ambassador Dupuy de Lme has a letter intercepted that refers to McKinley as weak and other Republicans as jingoes. Hearst prints the story as the Worst Insult to the United States in its History. Breaking News #2- The USS Maine BOOM!!! THE USS MAINE Primary Source Investigation You and 2 other individuals will read/investigate each of the 9 documents. On your own paper, you will respond to each of
the Sourcing, Close Reading, and Contextualizing questions for each document. Be prepared to discuss your findings. THE TRAGEDY OF THE MAINE February 15th, 1898 Havana Harbor
Loss of 260 sailors 2 Investigations Ensued The Spanish Investigation found that an internal/accidental explosion brought down the Maine. The American Investigation argued that it was a naval mine. In 1976 a US investigation validated the previous Spanish investigation
that spontaneous combustion caused the explosion. A 2002 History Channel Documentary found the same. YELLOW JOURNALISM Pulitzers World Hearsts Journal REMEMBER THE MAINE, TO HELL WITH SPAIN! MCKINLEYS WAR MESSAGE McKinley was leery of open hostilities with Spain.
McKinley also wasn't comfortable with a fully independent Cuba. Theodore Roosevelt referred to the president as White-Livered and claimed that he had the backbone of a chocolate clair.
Assistant Secretary of the Navy in the McKinley administration. Later, would resign from office to fight in the war. McKinley gave the people what they wanted and issued a war message to Congress in April of 1898. Said we were going to war to: Put an end to the bloodshed and starvation in
Cuba Protest lives/property of Americans in Cuba End the injury to commerce and trade with Americans End the constant menace to our peace that would result from an uprising in Cuba THE TELLER AMENDMENT The amendment to Congress Joint Resolution that after the war with Spain had ended the US would return "control of the island to its people. "The Teller Amendment, authored by a Colorado Senator who wanted to make sure that Cuba's sugar would not compete with his state's crop of beet sugar, prohibited the president annexing Cuba. Gregory Weeks, 2008
The Platt Amendment, crafted in 1901 by U.S. Secretary of War Elihu Root to replace the Teller Amendment, allowed for important decisions of the government of Cuba to be overridden by the United States. ROOSEVELT JUMPS INTO THE PACIFIC WITH BOTH FEET Even before war had been declared T.R. called on Commodore George Dewey to relocate his naval forces from Hong Kong to the waters off the Philippines. On May 1st, Dewey and his 6
warships defeated the first Spanish fleet in the harbor of Manila. Technological Superiority Spanish casualties neared 400 and Deweys fleet suffered no loss of life. THE SURRENDER OF MANILA Commodore Dewey transported Emilio Aguinaldo, a well educated, Filipino leader who had led rebellion against Spanish rule in the Philippines in 1896, to the Philippines from exile in Hong Kong to rally more Filipinos against the
Spanish colonial government. By June, U.S. and Filipino forces had taken control of most of the islands. Aguinaldo proclaimed the independence of the Philippines. On August 13th, with American commanders unaware that a cease-fire had been signed between Spain and the U.S. on the previous day, American forces captured the city of Manila from the Spanish. American action of preventing Filipino forces from capturing
the city of Manila was deeply resented by the Filipinos. THE CONFLICT IN CUBA Spain had sent a naval fleet to Cuba just before the declaration of war on April 25th. A frightened eastern seaboard called for immediate action.
The first American invasion force was horrendous. Poorly Trained Poorly Led Gen. William Shafter Poorly Equipped THE ROUGH RIDERS Theodore Roosevelt advocated intervention
in Cuba, both for the Cuban people and to promote the Monroe Doctrine. Roosevelt took lead of the 1st Volunteer Cavalry The Cowboy Cavalry was made up of college athletes, cowboys, and ranchers. THE BATTLES OF SAN JUAN AND KETTLE HILL
The Battle of San Juan Hill (July 1, 1898) was a decisive battle in Cuba. The names San Juan Hill and Kettle Hill were names given by the Americans. This fight for the San Juan Heights was the bloodiest and most famous battle of the War. San Juan Hill was the location of the greatest victory for the Rough Riders as claimed by the press and its new commander, the future Vice-President and later President, Theodore Roosevelt. Overlooked then by the American Press, much of the heaviest fighting was done by African-American troops.
BUFFALO SOLDIERS The Buffalo Soldiers were an all black cavalry originally formed at Fort Leavenworth in 1866. Some attribute the name to the Cheyenne who referred to the cavalry as Buffalo Soldiers during their conflicts The Buffalo Soldiers were only a portion of the 5,000+ African American troops serving in the United States Military. MAKING PEACE
With defeats in Cuba and the Philippines, and both of its fleets incapacitated, Spain wanted to talk peace. After over two months of difficult negotiations, the formal peace treaty, the Treaty of Paris, was signed in Paris on December 10, 1898, and was ratified by the United States Senate on February 6, 1899.
Cuba was freed from Spanish rule. Spain gave up Puerto Rico and the island of Guam. The US paid Spain $20 mil. for the Philippines. The US becomes an imperial power! Cuba formed its own civil government and gained independence on May 20, 1902. However, the US imposed various restrictions on the new government, including prohibiting alliances with other countries, and reserved the right to intervene. The US also established a perpetual lease of Guantnamo Bay. OCCUPATION OF THE PHILIPPINES
The U.S. sent a force of some 11,000 ground troops to occupy the Philippines. When U.S. troops began to take the place of the Spanish in control of the country, warfare broke out between U.S. forces and the Filipinos resulting in the Philippine-American War. Filipinos had assumed, like the Cubans, that they would be granted freedom. Opposition to the war inspired Mark Twain to found the Anti-Imperialist League on June 15, 1898.
THE ANTI-IMPERIALIST LEAGUE Founded in 1898. The fundamental principle that just republican government must derive from "consent of the governed."
Mark Twain, Andrew Carnegie, Grover Cleveland, & Samuel Gompers were among the members and welcome back to third time Presidential nominee William Jennings Bryan Campaigned against the annexation of the Philippines and other acts of imperialism. THE PHILIPPINE - AMERICAN WAR FEBRUARY 4, 1899 JULY 4, 1902
The war and occupation by the United States would change the cultural landscape of the islands. An estimated 200,000 Filipino casualties. 4,500 American (75% disease) Disestablishment of the Catholic Church as the state religion The introduction of English as the primary language of government and some businesses. INSULAR (ISLAND) CASES
Supreme Court was presented with the question: does the Constitution follow the flag? Answer from SC: NO! It is up to Congress on whether or not they choose to apply the rights guaranteed in the constitution to newly acquired lands TAFT AND OUR LITTLE BROWN BROTHERS William Howard Taft, Governor-General, attempted to ease tensions with the Filipinos. 1901-1904 Benevolent Assimilation Purchase of Catholic Lands from Pope Leo III and the sale of lands to Filipinos. American Schools and a 2nd Language, English. The people still hoped for freedom, which finally came on July
4th, 1946. This is almost identical to the bill of rights TODAY https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CesHr99ezWE John Oliver Territories
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