Headquarters U.S. Air Force Integrity - Service - Excellen ce Implementing Will-Cost & Should-Cost Management Presented by Rebecca L. Davies, SES Director, AF PM&AE Ranae Woods, SL, Technical Director, AFCAA February 16, 2011 Integrity - Service - Excellence Leadership Direction and Thoughts Adopt Will- and Should-Cost management - use historically informed independent estimation (will-cost estimates) to inform managing of programs to cost objectives (should-cost estimates) Managers should be driving productivity into their program - need to scrutinize every element of program cost Use will-cost estimate to support budgeting and programming Reasonable extrapolations from history Represents business-as-usual management To interrupt cycle of self-fulfilling prophecy to will-cost estimate, program manager must bring forward a should-cost estimate Justify every element Show how it is improving year by year or meeting other benchmarks for value
Applies to ACAT I, II, and III programs Integrity - Service - Excellence 2 Leadership Direction and Thoughts (continued) Metric for success - few percent per year of programs/ contracts executing below budget Industry can succeed in this environment Tie performance to higher profit Affordable programs wont face cancellation Integrity - Service - Excellence 3 Will-Cost and Should-Cost Management Defined Two separate cost estimates A non-advocate will-cost estimate for budgeting and programming A program manager should-cost estimate for program management execution Integrity - Service - Excellence 4
Will-Cost Estimate Definition The budget baseline will be based on a non-advocate will-cost estimate. Aims to provide sufficient resources to execute the program under normal conditions, encountering average levels of technical, schedule, and programmatic risk (usually no less than 50% confidence level). Supports the budget and ensures sufficient funding to provide confidence that: 1) the program can be completed without the need for significant adjustment to program budgets, and 2) the program can avoid Nunn-McCurdy or critical change breaches. Prepared by an office or entity operating outside the program office chain of command. Use for all acquisition, budget, and program execution decisions (e.g. source-selection, contract negotiations, IBRs, major reviews, PMB monitoring, annual budget/programming). Integrity - Service - Excellence 5 Should-Cost Definition Program-Level Should Cost Estimate - not just the immediate contract! Who owns? Program office develops, owns, reports & tracks the programlevel should cost estimate. Program manager (PM) recommends to MDA (AT&L/CAE) for approval. When required? All milestone decisions or other decisions going before
OUSD(AT&L) and CAE; annual updates/progress reporting. Which programs? ACAT I, II and III Intent: A DoD internal management tool used to incentivize performance to targets. Based on realistic technical and schedule baselines and assumes successoriented outcomes from implementation of efficiencies, lessons learned, and best practices. Designed to drive productivity improvements in our programs and will incorporate results of contract direct and indirect cost reviews (See FAR 15.407-4 and DFARS 215-407-4 should-cost reviews) when they are conducted. Integrity - Service - Excellence 6 Should-Cost Definition (continued) Various approaches, but three recommended:
Use will-cost estimate as the base and apply discrete, measurable items and/or specific initiatives for savings against that base Use bottoms-up approach (different methods from will-cost estimate) without a detailed FAR/DFARS should-cost review and include actionable content to achieve cost below the will-cost estimate Use bottoms-up approach (different methods from will-cost estimate) with a detailed FAR/DFARS should-cost review and include actionable content to achieve cost below the will-cost estimate Should-Cost initiatives will be categorized as: Near-term (within the program managers tenure) and long-term initiatives Program driven (within program managers control), Service Driven (within the services control), or Externally Driven (outside service control) Integrity - Service - Excellence 7 Should-Cost Definition (continued) Broad challenges by management to reduce cost through straight reductions by a specified percentage or dollar value against the willcost estimate are not valid should-cost estimates. Estimates are expected to have specific actionable content associated with reductions. Most items outside the control of the program office and inconsistent with the current program of record are outside excursions and not appropriate for the should-cost estimate. Example: economic production rates
Anything requiring significant investment for completion and an increase to the budget is outside the scope of the should-cost estimate and should be shown separately for consideration. Integrity - Service - Excellence 8 Should-Cost Definition (continued) PMs should consider: Seeking assistance from outside organizations (e.g., the Air Force Cost Analysis Agency, DCMA, SAF/AQC) as they develop should-cost estimate Close collaboration with appropriate center level functional organizations Will-cost estimate excursions from the nonadvocate organization and all previously defined should-cost estimates Integrity - Service - Excellence 9 Will-Cost/Should-Cost Will / Should Cost Analysis To Comp Total FY18-25 FY12-25 $ 805.4 $ 1,256.0 $ 1,691.1 $ 1,260.2 $ 1,170.5 $ 973.3 $ 7,156.4 $ 5,556.0 $ 12,712.4 $ 789.4 $ 1,231.3 $ 1,675.7 $ 1,155.8 $ 933.1 $ 784.5 $ 6,569.8 $ 4,740.3 $ 11,310.1 -2.02%
-2.00% -0.92% -9.03% -25.45% -24.07% -8.93% -17.21% -12.40% RDTE + APA Total FY2012 Will Cost (ICE) Should Cost % Delta FY2013 FY2014 FY2015 FY2016 FY2017 12-17 Total Supporting Evidence for Should Cost: Production rates economical and historically stable Shorten program timeline Complete R&D effort in FY16 vs. FY17 as currently planned in ICE Potential production rate increase Strong negotiation positions Historical cost, learning curve, and understanding of production efficiencies Long-term supplier agreements Parametric model MOA established with contractor for key routine functions/costs Open system architecture design eases future enhancements Aggressive Breakout IPT established for appropriate technical data packages (TDP) and data rights Integrity - Service - Excellence
10 Another Potential Template Title: Cost Savings Assessments By System (BY10$M) Potential Savings Adjusted Learning Process lmprovement Contracting System 1 System 2 System 3 System X $xxxM ($yy/unit) $xxxM ($yy/unit) $xxxM ($yy/unit) $xxxM ($yy/unit) $0M ($0M/unit) $xxM $xxM
$xxM -Cost improvement reasonable (no adjustment made) $xxM -Eliminate redundant work -Move work to more efficient facility $xxM -Reduce SEPM staff based on history $xxM -Acquire new sources for widgets A, B, and C -Move work to more efficient facility -Implement cost reduction initiatives $xxM -Sync buys w/ other customers -Reduce proposal activity -Reduce flight test activity $xxM -Touch learning reasonable (not adjusted) -Forecast material costs at composite level w/ 95% rate curve -Historical learning applied to Sustain Eng.
$xxM $xxM $xxM -Negotiate lower Material Handling and Flight test support -Account for concurrent buys with other customers $xxM -DCMA use new rate projection methods Accelerate Buys -Forecast Labor at historical improvement curve levels -Forecast material costs at composite level with 95% rate curve $xxM -Eliminate proposal prep with priced options Other -Forecast using historical learning /rate curves $xxM
-DCMA use new rate projection methods $xxM $xxM -Increase buy rate, shortens program and amortizes fixed costs over more units per lot -DCMA use new rate projection methods $xxM -Increase buy rate, shortens program and amortizes fixed costs over more units per lot SPO Driven Savings -Not assessed -Increase buy rate, shortens program amortizing fixed costs over more units per lot Service Driven Savings -Not assessed External Driven Savings Integrity - Service - Excellence 11
System 1 Should-Cost Avg Unit Price to Govt Integrity - Service - Excellence 12 BACKUP Integrity - Service - Excellence 13 When Required? Air Force Event Will-Cost estimates (Initial / Update) Program Should-Cost estimates (Initial / Update) Indirect/Direct Reviews MS A Yearly Updates MS B Initial Update Initial Update
N/A N/A Yearly Updates MS C Decision / LRIP 1 Contract Award Update Cost Update Update to Support Contract Actions (Initial setting of Budget Baseline for (Sets Internal Program Execution Initial (Optional) Nunn-McCurdy metrics) Baseline) Yearly Updates FRP (FDDR) Decision / Contract Award Yearly Updates Contract Update Optional Update Update Optional Refer to recommendations IAW
FAR 15.407-4 -- Should-cost Review and DFARS 215.407-4 Should-cost Update Update Optional Update Update Optional Refer to recommendations IAW FAR 15.407-4 -- Should-cost Review and DFARS 215.407-4 Should-cost review. Update Update Optional In addition, consider for the following program events: - Critical Design Review - First LRIP award out of option contracts - Interim Contractor Support and Contractor Logistic Support first contract awards - Organic Logistics Infrastructure (e.g., depot stand-up, DLA, ALC) Integrity - Service - Excellence 14
Chapter 8 Section 3 Notes Motion and Force What is Force? A force is the cause of acceleration or change in an object's velocity Fundamental Forces There are 4 fundamental forces in nature: Gravity Electromagnetic force Strong nuclear force Weak...
The Class Ceiling. Social Origin Pay Gaps . in the Higher Professional and Managerial Occupations. Daniel Laurison. Based in part on "The Class Pay Gap in Higher Managerial and Professional Occupations" by Daniel Laurison and Sam Friedman, accepted for publication...
Witness to Evolution Witness to Evolution Peppered Moth 2 types: dark vs. light Peppered moth: Evolution in action Peppered moth Why did the population change? early 1800s = pre-industrial England low pollution lichen on trees = light colored bark late...
Kontakt personu ķīmioprofilakse. Ģimenes locekļiem, tuvām kontaktpersonām bērnu iestādēs. Visām personām, kurām ir tieša saskare ar pacienta mutes sekrētiem (skūpstīšanās, ēdiena un dzēriena lietošana no kopējiem traukiem, saskare ar visu, kas bijis pacienta mutē), t.sk. medicīnas personāls reanimācijas laikā, ventilējot...
Traitement à l'acide nitrique ou par meulage. Plonger la lame de cuivre dans une solution salée (avec une lame d'aluminium) ou de nitrate de Plomb (avec une lame de Plomb). Relier les deux lames à un ampèremètre. Allumer la lampe...
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!