Including Students with Special Needs in General Physical ...
INCLUDING STUDENTS WITH SPECIAL NEEDS IN GENERAL PHYSICAL EDUCATION March 2011 FIRST AND FOREMOST - THE LINGO Terminology/Acronyms ID Severe = Intellectually Disabled Severe ID Mod = Intellectually Disabled Moderate ID Mild = Intellectually Disabled Mild AU = Autism EC = Exceptional Children SED = Serious Emotional Disturbance OCS = Occupational Course of Study OHI = Other Health Impairment IEP = Individualized Education Plan
IDEA = Individuals with Disabilities Education Act LEA = Local Education Agency LRE = Least Restrictive Environment NCLB = No Child Left Behind BIP = Behavior Intervention Plan ABA = Applied Behavior Analysis (Autism) VBA = Verbal Behavior Approach (Autism) FIRST AND FOREMOST - THE LINGO Person First Language Students with special needs. Students with disabilities. Not Special needs students. Not Disabled students. Students with Autism. Not Autistic students. Appropriate: Special needs, exceptional needs, disabilities Not Appropriate:
Handicap, retarded Gettin picky Student uses a wheelchair. Not Student is in a wheelchair. Subject to Change THE LAW The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), Public Law 108-466 (2004), states that physical education is a required service for children and youth between the ages of 3-21 who qualify for special education services because of a specific disability or developmental delay. The federal law (PL 94-142, PL 101-476, PL 105-17, PL 108-446) mandates the following in regards to physical education and students with disabilities: General. (1) As used in this part, the term special education means specially designed instruction, at no cost to the parents, to meet the unique needs of a child with a disability, including(i) Instruction conducted in the classroom, in the home, in hospitals and institutions, and in other settings; and (ii) Instruction in physical education. THE LAW (2) The term includes each of the following, if it meets the requirements of
paragraph (a)(1) of this section: Physical education(i) Means the development of(A) Physical and motor fitness; (B) Fundamental motor skills and patterns; and (C) Skills in aquatics, dance, and individual and group games and sports (including intramural and lifetime sports); and (ii) Includes special physical education, adapted physical education, movement education, and motor development. (3) Specially-designed instruction Means adapting, as appropriate to the needs of an eligible child under this part, the content, methodology, or delivery of instruction(i) To address the unique needs of the child that result from the child's disability; and (ii) To ensure access of the child to the general curriculum, so that he or she can meet the educational standards within the jurisdiction of the public agency that apply to all children. General. Physical education services, specially designed if necessary, must be made available to every child with a disability receiving FAPE. THE LAW Regular physical education. Each child with a disability must be afforded the opportunity to participate in the regular physical education program available to nondisabled children unless(1) The child is enrolled full time in a separate facility; or (2) The child needs specially designed physical education, as
prescribed in the child's IEP. Special physical education. If specially designed physical education is prescribed in a child's IEP, the public agency responsible for the education of that child shall provide the services directly or make arrangements for those services to be provided through other public or private programs. Education in separate facilities. The public agency responsible for the education of a child with a disability who is enrolled in a separate facility shall ensure that the child receives appropriate physical education services in compliance with paragraphs (a) and (c) of this section. APE/PE Continuum LEVEL 1 Regular Physical Education Class LEVEL 2 Regular Physical Education with consultation from Adapted Physical Education LEVEL 3 Adapted Physical Education for only specific skills or areas of weakness LEVEL 4 Part-time Regular PE and part-time Adapted PE LEVEL 5
Full time Adapted Physical Education PLACEMENT Numerous Factors Determine Placement 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. The Disability Scheduling Support Services Age Appropriateness Assessments EC Teacher General PE Teacher What is the best educational scenario for THIS student? Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) Varies from school to school, student to student Regular education students have a right to learn too. HELPFUL PAPERWORK HELPFUL PAPERWORK HELPFUL PAPERWORK SPECIFIC ADAPTATIONS BY DISABILITY
Cerebral Palsy Use balloons or beach balls Modify rules or games End activity before student gets frustrated Enlarge targets Use extension for tag games (Foam Noodle) Use large scooters, create boat on scooters Focus on reaching, grasping, pushing Use slower locomotor patterns for regular education students. Bear crawl, crab walk, hopping, etc. Down Syndrome Positive, positive, positive Avoid stress to neck area
Highly structured environment Brief instruction Visual instruction - demonstrations Set-up for success Be consistent with motivation SPECIFIC ADAPTATIONS BY DISABILITY Autism Visuals station signs, picture stories, etc Predictable/structured routine Smooth transitions Stations Allow for extra time Eliminate excessive stimulation Vigorous exercise reduce stimming Duplicate teaching strategies of teacher Warm-up, activity, closure
Applied Behavior Analysis Verbal Behavior Approach Token System Reinforcers touch, food, candy Wheelchairs Ask the student! Get them out of their chairs Safety first Stationary, slower moving balls Vary distances Use longer, lighter equipment Lower goals Use slower locomotor patterns Bear crawl, crab walk, hopping, etc. SPECIFIC ADAPTATIONS BY DISABILITY Visual Impairments Safety first
Give physical assistance (only if necessary) Increase size of equipment Use brightly colored equipment Use beep balls, bell balls Give physical assistance Use guides Keep it clean Avoid overprotecting Notify of changes made to gym Wall Guide wire Carpet runner Hearing Impairments
Determine start/stop signal Use visual demonstrations Stand still when giving directions Make sure student can see your lips Learn basic signs Be aware of any balance issues SPECIFIC ADAPTATIONS BY DISABILITY Multiple Disabilities Be patient Be flexible Use brightly colored equipment Use visuals for boundaries Break tasks into smaller steps Modify equipment Use physical and verbal prompting Provide immediate feedback Self paced activities
Poly spots, cones, rope Stations Task cards Give lots of positive reinforcement and praise Verbal and physical Learn to adapt the game to the student, not the student to the game. MODIFICATIONS BY LIMITATION Limited Strength Shorten distance to move or propel object Use lighter equipment Use shorter and lighter striking implements Allow students to sit or lie down while playing Allow students to monitor their own fatigue Use deflated balls or suspended balls Change movement requirements Limited Coordination and Accuracy Use stationary objects for kicking/striking Decrease distance for throwing, kicking, and striking
Make targets and goals larger Use scarves, balloons, bubbles to enhance visual tracking skills Increase surface of striking implements Use larger balls for kicking and striking Use softer, slower balls for striking and catching Use lighter, less stable pins in bowlingtype games. Limited Speed Shorten distance or change distances for different students Change locomotor pattern Equalize competition among teams Make safe areas in tag games Limited Balance Provide chair, bar or buddy for support Teach balance techniques (widen base, use arms) Increase width of surfaces to be walked Use carpeted areas rather than slick surfaces Teach student how to fall Place student near wall for support Lower center of gravity MODIFICATIONS BY SPORT Badminton use oversized racquets use larger birdies use a lower net allow students to sit eliminate the net use a balloon instead
of a birdie Basketball use smaller, lighter ball use a different type of ball (e.g., playground ball) use a lower goal use a goal with a larger circumference modify rules use smaller playing area Bowling use lighter ball use fewer number of pins allow students to push ball while sitting use ramp allow three tries instead of two use empty milk jugs as pins create lanes with cones Floor Hockey use oversized sticks use lighter sticks use larger ball or puck increase size of the goal
use smaller playing area modify rules do not use goalies Kickball Soccer Softball Volleyball use a lighter, larger ball allow students to use a hockey stick to contact ball (wheelchairs) decrease distance to base use one base allow student to kick ball when stationary use lighter, larger ball allow students to use a hockey stick instead of kicking the ball use smaller playing area allow students to play with a buddy allow student to walk
to ball or roll wheelchair to ball use larger goal use a lighter, larger ball use a lighter bat use shorter distance around bases use one base allow more than three strikes use batting tee allow more time to get to bases use a beach ball or balloon allow students to sit on the floor use lower net use no net at all use smaller playing court allow ball to bounce once before hitting allow unlimited number of hits allow more than one try when serving INCLUSION BENEFITS LIMITATIONS
Stimulating environment Less attention from teacher Motivating environment Less time on task Development of social skills Teacher not adequately prepared Friendships Frustration teachers and students Modeling Requires more planning Positive experiences Awareness Sense of belonging PARAEDUCATORS Main Focus to assist teacher(s) in implementing a students IEP. Can provide valuable information regarding students: 1. 2.
3. 4. 5. Behaviors at certain times during the day Communication skills Likes and dislikes Medical issues Other ideas for adaptations/modifications Tips for Working With Paraeducators 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Be aware of expectations set in place by classroom teacher. Start off on a good note! Make them like you. Empower them. If para is not doing what is asked of them, always go to the classroom teacher. If possible, give them specific instructions. Keep a log. Problems with paraeducators are not just a Pitt County thing. Make it fun for them! TIPS
Be Enthusiastic! Learn to adapt the game to the student, Educate Yourself student Students Paraeducators Teachers All parties will benefit Adapt curriculum Paradigm shift Appreciate Mini-Victories
Teaching strategies Behavior techniques Reinforcers Embrace Change the Plan Ahead to game. Build Relationships the Observe in the Classroom
Workshops Professional literature Webinars Professional organizations not Lining up correctly Eye contact Waiting their turn Smiles Ask Questions and........Never Underestimate THE END
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