Indexing with The AIRS/Info Line Taxonomy Part I: Introduction

Indexing with The AIRS/Info Line Taxonomy Part I: Introduction

Indexing with the AIRS/211 LA County Taxonomy A 2-Part Workshop for the 2010 AIRS Conference in Rochester (5/25/10) Dick Manikowski, Editor, AIRS Journal [email protected] Last revised 05/11/10 5:46p Workshop Objectives

To review the Taxonomys structure and design; To introduce basic principles and practices in indexing; To help participants recognize some of the decisions that have to be made when using the Taxonomy; To discuss Taxonomy maintenance and customization procedures; and To have fun while were learning. (But dont spill the beans to your colleagues who couldnt come. What happens in Rochester . . . ) NoteThis is a two-part workshop. Anyone who cant attend the second half wont get the real substance of it. Anyone who skips the first half will likely be lost during the second half. The content is heavily based on the model devised by Margaret Bruni for workshops offered at previous Conferences and has hugely benefited from suggestions from Georgia Sales and many others. Why Do We Index Databases & Directories?

So we can sift through the contents efficiently Your goal is for the index to allow the user to find All relevant resources Only relevant resources As easily as possible Indexes exist for the convenience of the user and not that of the indexer Theres an inverse relationship between ease of use of a database or directory and ease of indexing. To create an index that the user can navigate easily and effectively, the indexer has to work hard and smart. Jenny and I are here to help you work smart. The working hard part is up to you. What Is a Taxonomy? tak-SON--m

2: The systematic distinguishing, ordering and naming of type groups within a subject field: CLASSIFICATION (Websters Third New International Dictionary) Taxonomies include: telephone Yellow Pages headings the system of binomial nomenclature used to assign names to plant and animal species (homo sapiens) Dewey Decimal and Library of Congress systems for classifying library materials I&R directory indexes Watch Your Terminology! The taxonomy we use is the AIRS/LA 211 Taxonomy

That taxonomy is composed of terms that users search under to locate needed services Dont embarrass yourself by saying Im looking for a taxonomy for a program that . . . . Youre looking for a term, not a taxonomy. If you make that faux pas in this workshop or in the future, I will publicly embarrass you. The AIRS/211 LA County Taxonomy

Is specifically designed for indexing community resource files Has been endorsed by both AIRS and United Way of America Has been developed in consultation with experts in a broad range of fields Uses language from relevant fields Includes carefully crafted definitions Is integrated into most I&R software packages Continues to evolve to meet the needs of indexers Is not only the de facto standard for indexing I&R files, but . . . The AIRS/211 LA County Taxonomy It has been mandated by the AIRS Standards for Professional Information & Referral and Quality Indicators

(Version 6.0; January 2009) Standard 9: Classification System/Taxonomy The I&R service shall use the AIRS/211 LA County Taxonomy of Human Services (formally titled A Taxonomy of Human Services: A Conceptual Framework with Standardized Terminology and Definitions for the Field) to index and facilitate retrieval of resource information, increase the reliability of planning data, make evaluation processes consistent and reliable, and facilitate national comparisons of data. Additional classification structures such as keywords may supplement the Taxonomy, but must must be connected to the Taxonomy rather than functioning as independent indexing systems. The AIRS/211 LA County Taxonomy Finally, by using a standardized classification system, I&Rs are better able to share resource records. (Its not quite that simple. Some ramifications that shared records present for database managers will be briefly discussed later in this presentation.) Taxonomy Web Site www.211taxonomy.org After many years of planning, the taxonomy Web site was unveiled on 2/11/05.

Subscribers have password-protected access to a frequently updated copy of the master Taxonomy, with the ability to download updates in a variety of formats and sorts. (Visitors without passwords are permitted to access some of the features of the site in order to get a taste of how the site works.) Taxonomy Web Site Authorized users search for terms Taxonomy Web Site Authorized users can view changes for any specified period Taxonomy Web Site Authorized users can download the Taxonomy as a data file for importation into their resource database if their

software vendor supports this function ImportantThe Taxonomy subscription permits your agency to download the taxonomy files (which have only been available in XML format since 6/30/07). But in order to implement the changes, your software publisher must develop a mechanism for incorporating the updates into your database. Neither AIRS nor 211-LA County can do this for your software. Taxonomy Subscription Rates (effective 6/1/10) Subscriber Category Annual Rate Three-Year Prepaid Rate

AIRS Members (nonprofit or governmental) $200 $450 ($150/yr) AIRS Members (for profit) $500 $1350 ($450/yr) Non-Members (non-profit $250 or governmental) $600 ($200/yr) Non-Members

(for profit) $1800 ($600/yr) $650 Why should my agency have to pay a subscription fee for the Taxonomy on top of our AIRS membership dues? We have a tight budget! 211 LA County has a tight budget, too, but they subsidized Georgia Sales development of the Taxonomy for over 20 years and continue to do so. They deserve to be compensated for that support. The Taxonomy is copyrighted by 211 LA County. Unauthorized use of it is a violation of federal law. Taxonomy Hierarchy

Divides all of human and social services into ten Major Service Categories (with a separate eleventh Target Group Section), each branching into up to six increasingly narrowly focused Levels of Classification Taxonomy Term Code Each term has a unique identification number (Taxonomy Code) which reflects its placement in the hierarchy. (Note: Dont let the codes intimidate you. They exist to help computers and indexers understand the relationship between terms. You do not have to memorize codes.) Hierarchical Relationships

Between Terms N In c o m e S u p p o r t & E m p lo y m e n t Level 1 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 Level 6 N L P u b lic A s s is ta n c e P ro g ra m s N D E m p lo y m e n t Level 2

N D -1 6 0 0 .1 8 0 0 E x e m p la r y R e h a b ilita tio n C e r tific a t io n N D -1 6 0 0 E m p lo y e e C e r tif ic a tio n N D -2 0 0 0 E m p lo y m e n t P r e p a r a t io n N D -1 6 0 0 .2 0 0 0 F id e lit y B o n d in g S e r v ic e s N D -1 6 0 0 .9 5 0 0 W o r k P e r m its N D -1 6 0 0 .9 5 0 0 -3 0 0

H o m e W o r k P e r m its NS S o c ia l In s u r a n c e P ro g ra m s N D -1 6 0 0 .9 5 0 0 -9 5 0 Y o u th W o r k P e r m its N D -1 6 0 0 .9 5 0 0 -9 5 0 .1 5 U n a s s ig n e d T e r m N D -1 6 0 0 .9 5 0 0 -9 5 0 -2 5 U n a s s ig n e d T e r m There are 6 levels to the Taxonomy, but most concepts arent developed past the 3rd, 4th, or 5th level. Taxonomy Branch

(Path Leading to a Specific Term from the Level I Term Above It) Level 1 N In c o m e S u p p o r t & E m p lo y m e n t Level 2 ND E m p lo y m e n t Level 3 N D -1 6 0 0 E m p lo y e e C e r tific a tio n Level 4

N D -1 6 0 0 .9 5 0 0 W o r k P e r m it s Level 5 N D -1 6 0 0 .9 5 0 0 -9 5 0 Y o u th W o r k P e r m it s Level 6 N D -1 6 0 0 .9 5 0 0 -9 5 0 .2 5 U n a s s ig n e d Terms and Cross References

Each actual taxonomy term (technically called a Preferred Term) has a code, uses language from its field, and has a precise and concise definition See Also References are provided to other related Preferred Terms to help both indexers and end-users Use References point to Preferred Terms from non-preferred terms under which users might search for a concept Taxonomy Locale While the Taxonomy was originally developed for use in the United States, partners have helped develop two Canadian versions of it (in English and in French). The Canadian versions reflect that countrys governmental and

judicial structures as well as differences in terminology (First Peoples rather than Native Americans) and spelling (favourite colour rather than favorite color) Six Facets (Types of Preferred Terms) 1. Service Terms describe specific services (acts of help for assistance) Low Cost Meals Long-Term Care Insurance The vast majority of terms in Taxonomy branches B (Basic Needs) through T (Organizational/Community/International Services) are service terms. Six Facets (Types of Preferred Terms) 2.

Organization/Facility Type Terms describe what entities are, which often implies what they do Hospitals Senior Centers Voluntary Health Organizations Organization/Facility Type terms are scattered throughout Taxonomy branches B through T. These terms can provide valid indexing shortcuts. Six Facets (Types of Preferred Terms) 2. Organization/Facility Type Terms (cont.) are also listed in the Related Concepts section of the Web site

Six Facets (Types of Preferred Terms) Organization/Facility Type Terms (cont.) One particularly useful organizational/facility type term is 2. Administrative Entities TF-0500 Management offices that serve as headquarters for organizations and which provide services that plan, organize and control the activities of the organization but which offer no direct services to the public except peripheral administrative services like training, community awareness programs or materials and research. Included are the administrative offices of local city and county departments, state agencies and federal agencies as

Six Facets (Types of Preferred Terms) 3. Named Program Terms describe major programs with commonly known names WIC Medicare Medicaid Because human service workers have a good idea of what these programs encompass, theres often no need to index the specific services which come under their umbrella. Six Facets (Types of Preferred Terms) 3.

Named Program Terms (cont.) are listed in the Related Concepts section of the Web site Six Facets (Types of Preferred Terms) 4. Target Terms* describe groups at whom services and programs are targeted and can be used to more narrowly focus indexing. Social Clubs/Events (a true service term) could be focused more narrowly by combining it with target terms like: Social Clubs/Events * Alcoholics Social Clubs/Events * Pregnant Teens *Only applicable if your I&R software package supports the ability to combine Taxonomy terms. Six Facets (Types of Preferred Terms)

Target Terms (cont.) Dont confuse the concepts of eligibility and targeting. A program may be targeted at a particular group but have eligibility criteria which are much broader. 4. Example: A particular soup kitchen may be specifically targeted at the homeless population but have no eligibility restrictions. Six Facets (Types of Preferred Terms) Target Terms (cont.) If you try to reflect eligibility criteria in your indexing, youll make your database unsearchable and drive yourself nuts attaching target terms to service terms. 4.

Soup Kitchens * Males Soup Kitchens * Females Soup Kitchens * Adults Soup Kitchens * Young Adults Soup Kitchens * Older Adults Soup Kitchens * Albanians Soup Kitchens * Asthma Soup Kitchens * Ad Infinitum Six Facets (Types of Preferred Terms) 4. Target Terms (cont.) The Y branch of the Taxonomy encompasses target terms. Six Facets (Types of Preferred Terms) Target Terms (cont.)

And the YZ branch of it covers Topical Identifiers/Issues which are useful for focusing indexing terms in the Public Awareness/Education branch. 4. Six Facets (Types of Preferred Terms) 4. Target Terms (cont.) For a really thoughtful discussion of the issues involved in using target terms, see the article Indexing Using Target Population Terms in the AIRS/INFO LINE Taxonomy by Diane Gatto (Barrett) and Cathleen Kelly. Originally published in 2004 in v. 26 of the AIRS Journal, its available online in the Library section of the Taxonomy Web site.

Six Facets (Types of Preferred Terms) 5. Modality/Delivery Format Terms describe how services are delivered. Taxonomy term Discrimination Assistance (a true service term) could be narrowed by combining it with modality terms: Discrimination Assistance * Legal Representation or Discrimination Assistance * Advocacy Not all I&R software packages support the ability to combine Taxonomy terms. Six Facets (Types of Preferred Terms) 5. Modality/Delivery Format Terms (cont.) are listed in the Related

Concepts section of the Web site Six Facets (Types of Preferred Terms) 5. Modality/Delivery Format Terms (cont.) Modality/Delivery Format Terms are meant to be used to modify service terms and should never be used alone. Six Facets (Types of Preferred Terms) 6. Orientation/Philosophy terms describe services which are provided in a manner which accommodates a particular philosophy. There are only a handful of this type of term. Three are in the Target Populations section: Feminist Organizational Perspective

(YQ-2000) Partisan Political Organizational Perspective (YQ-6500) Religious Organizational Perspective (YQ-7000) Six Facets (Types of Preferred Terms) 6. Orientation/Philosophy terms (cont.) Additionally, true service term Pregnancy Counseling (LJ-2000.6500) is subdivided into two Orientation/Philosophy service terms: Pro-Choice Counseling (LJ-2000.6500-650) Pro-Life Counseling (LJ-2000.6500-700) Six Facets (Types of Preferred Terms) 6.

Orientation/Philosophy terms (cont.) Orientation/Philosophy Terms which are target terms are meant to be used to modify service terms and should never be used alone. But the terms that are also service terms can be used alone Not all I&R software packages support the ability to combine Taxonomy terms. Summary: Six Facets (Types of Preferred Terms) Can Be Used Facet (Type of Term) Alone Service Term Organization/Facility Type

Term Named Program Term Target Term Modality/Delivery Format Term Orientation/Philosophy (if its also a Term service term Pro-Choice or Pro-Life Pregnancy Counseling) Should Never Be Used Alone

(if its also a target termPartisan Political or Feminist or Religious Organizational Perspective) Five Types of Services (not Terms) 1. Primary Services are entry point services which an individual who meets the eligibility criteria can receive without having to be already being affiliated with an agency.

Always index primary services (unless they dont fall within your agencys inclusion/ exclusion criteria) Five Types of Services (not Terms) 2. Secondary Services are services which an individual cant receive unless shes already receiving a primary service from an agency Dont index secondary services (though its useful to mention them in text) If a job training program offers bus passes to program participants, dont use the indexing term Local Transit Passes. Only index the primary service (Job Training). Why not?

Because you wont be referring callers to the agency for bus passes! Five Types of Services (not Terms) 3. Indirect Services are services which an agency doesnt directly provide but for which it makes referrals to other agencies Dont index indirect services . . . or at least index them under the proper term If an agency claims to operate a food pantry but is found to actually refer individuals to neighboring pantries, dont index it as Food Pantries. If youre going to index the activity at all, call it what it is: Information and Referral or Specialized Information and Referral.

Five Types of Services (not Terms) 4. Ancillary Services are services which an agency provides but which arent worth the effort to index Dont index ancillary services Every agency is happy to promote itself. So you dont need to index with the Speakers/Speakers Bureaus term to advise the call specialist that a caller looking for someone to speak about the local Job Corps center should be referred to the local Job Corp center. She already knows that! Five Types of Services (not Terms) 5.

Phantom Services are services which an agency claims to offer but is rarely able to actually provide. Dont index phantom services If a local charity claims to provide persons in emergency situations with used cars when they can but has only been able to do so once in the past three years, who would be served by using the indexing term Automobiles? Neither the charity nor the caller. Summary: Five Types of Services (not Terms) Type of Service Primary Service Secondary Service Indirect Service

Ancillary Service Phantom Service Should Be Cited in Narrative Text? Yes Selectively Selectively Selectively No Should Be Indexed? Yes No Selectively . . . but use the right term! No No

Four Fundamental Principles of Indexing 1. Ease of Searching The end-user should only have to search under one term to locate all resources in the database which provide a particular service Reliance on keywords or a shotgun approach to indexing actually complicates the search NoteThis isnt one of the Three Fundamental Principles of Indexing originally formulated by Margaret Bruni. Ive added it because I think it provides the philosophical underpinning for the other three principles.

Four Fundamental Principles of Indexing 2. Accuracy in Indexing Choose the most specific term available* which fully describes what is being indexed *Availability of terms will be discussed later If needed, use multiple terms to describe what is being indexed Organization provides small supply of groceries and used clothing to families in emergency situations. Index as Food Pantries Index as Clothing Four Fundamental Principles of Indexing

3. Avoid Redundant Indexing (Double Indexing) Redundant indexing is using two terms from the same Taxonomy branch anywhere in your database, such as terms * Employment (ND) and * Job Finding Assistance (ND-3500) Four Fundamental Principles of Indexing More on Avoiding Redundant Indexing: When you have a legitimate need to index a service group at what seem to be multiple levels, look for a generalized form of the lower level term ExampleRather than indexing a program under the terms Dental Care (LV-1600) and Orthodontics (LV-1600.6350), use

Level 4 terms General Dentistry (LV-1600.2400) and Orthodontics (LV-1600.6350) Unfortunately, situations will arise when double indexing cant be avoided . . . but do your best to minimize double-indexing in your database. Notify Georgia if you think a new generalized lower level term is needed. Four Fundamental Principles of Indexing 4. Consistency in Indexing (cont.) Once a term has been used to index one record, it should also be used for all other records to which it applies. Four Fundamental

Principles of Indexing 4. Consistency in Indexing (cont.) If you index Agency A as providing Job Fairs (ND3500.3500-360), you cant index Agency B as providing Job Information (ND-3500.3500). By using the Level 5 term Job Fairs, youve tacitly agreed not to use any other terms in that branch of the Taxonomy anywhere in your database. Any programs that offer any service within the ND3500.3500 branch will have to be indexed at a Level 5 term. Consistent Indexing within a Branch B B a s ic N eeds 1 BV

U t ilit ie s 2 B V -8 9 5 0 U t ilit y S e r v ic e C o n n e c t i o n / R e p a ir 3 4 5 B V -8 9 5 0 .1 8 0 0 ** E le c t r ic S e r v ic e C o n n e c t i o n / R e p a ir B V - 8 9 5 0 .6 0 0 0 * * N a tu r a l G a s S e r v ic e C o n n e c t i o n / R e p a ir

B V -8 9 0 0 U t ilit y A s s is ta n c e B V - 8 9 5 0 .8 5 0 0 * * T e le p h o n e S e r v ic e C o n n e c t i o n / R e p a ir B V -8 9 5 0 .9 5 0 0 ** W a t e r S e r v ic e C o n n e c t i o n / R e p a ir B V - 8 9 0 0 .9 3 0 0 - 1 8 0 * * E le c t r ic S e r v ic e P a y m e n t A s s is is t a n c e ** = Term authorized for use in indexing

B V -8 9 0 0 .9 3 0 0 U t ilit y S e r v ic e P a y m e n t A s s is ta n c e B V -8 9 0 0 .9 3 0 0 -2 5 0 ** G a s S e r v ic e P a y m e n t A s s is ta n c e B V -8 9 0 0 .9 2 0 0 ** U t ilit y D is c o n n e c t io n N o tific a tio n B V -8 9 0 0 .9 3 0 0 -8 5 0 ** T e le p h o n e S e r v ic e P a y m e n t A s s is t a n c e B V -8 9 0 0 .9 3 0 0 -9 5 0 ** W a te r S e r v ic e P a y m e n t A s s is t a n c e

Tracking Status of Terms in Your Implementation of the Taxonomy B Basic Needs BV Utilities BV-8800 Utility Bill Assistance *BV-8800.9200 Utility Bill Disconnection Notification BV-8800.9300 Utility Bill Payment Assistance *BV-8800.9300-150 Electric Service Payment Assistance *BV-8800.9300-250 Gas Service Payment Assistance BV-8800.9300-850 Telephone Service Payment Assistance

*BV-8800.9300-950 Water Service Payment Assistance * = Term has been used Text = Unused term available for indexing Text = Term unavailable for indexing Why? B Basic Needs BV Utilities BV-8800 Utility Bill Assistance BV-8800.9200 Utility Bill Disconnection Service BV-8800.9300 Utility Bill Payment Assistance *BV-8800.9300-150 Electric Service Payment Assistance *BV-8800.9300-250 Gas Service Payment Assistance BV-8800.9300-850 Telephone Service Payment Assistance

*BV-8800.9300-950 Water Service Payment Assistance This approach would work if you opted to index utility bill payment at the 5th level of the taxonomy. Just because youre using a 4th level term for Utility Bill Disconnection Notification, youre not obligated to index everything at the 4th level. All that matters is that you never use a term thats directly above or below another term used to index your database. Your I&R software may provide options for deactivating terms (making them invisible to all users) or authorizing them (letting your indexers know that theyve been approved for use). Filters Feature Enables Subscribers to Maintain or Even Share Customized

Versions of the Taxonomy Check 2007 AIRS Journal (reprinted in the Library | Resources section of the Taxonomy Web site) for details on how it works Relax! Properly Using the Taxonomy Doesnt Entail the Massive Workload It Initially Appears To By not indexing secondary services, ancillary services, indirect services, or phantom services,

youre greatly reducing the number of services you need to index. Youre not choosing from the entire pool of Taxonomy terms (which would be pretty intimidating) Both of these save you time and effort without compromising your resource database. (In fact, theyll make your data more accessible to the searcher.) With Each Indexing Decision You Make, You Reduce Your Pool of Available Terms to a More Manageable Size Terms in the TIP Database as of 4/14/08 "Real" Terms (Branches B - T) Target Terms

(Branch Y) Total Taxonomy Terms 6,710 2,207 Terms Used for Indexing 1,317 88 19.6274% 3.9873%

Percentage of Total Taxonomy Terms Taxonomys Full Food (BD) Section B Basic Needs BD BD-260 Food BD-260.050 Food Production Agricultural Assistance

BD-150 Communal Food BD-260.050-33 Irrigation Assistance BD-180 Emergency Food BD-260.050-35 Home Gardening Assistance BD-180.100

Brown Bag Programs BD-180.200 Food Pantries BD-180.200-20 Food Lines BD-180.200-62 Occasional Emergency Food BD-180.200-64 Ongoing Emergency Food BD-180.225

Food Vouchers BD-180.250 Government Surplus Food BD-180.800 Sack Lunches/Dinners BD-180.820 Specialty Food Providers BD-180.820-18 Drinking Water

BD-180.820-20 Food Supplements BD-180.820-25 Formula/Baby Food BD-200 Food Banks BD-220 Food Gleaning Programs BD-240 Food Outlets

BD-240.200 Farm Trails BD-240.225 Farmers Markets BD-240.250 Food Co-ops BD-240.500 Mini Markets BD-240.900

U-Pick Programs BD-260.150 Community Gardening BD-260.450 Livestock Breeding/ Management BD-260.700 Rent-A-Tree BD-500 Meals

BD-500.145 Child Care Food Programs BD-500.150 Congregate Meals BD-500.350 Home Delivered Meals BD-500.450 Low-Cost Meals BD-500.500 Meal Vouchers

BD-500.510 Milk Programs BD-500.520 Mobile Canteens BD-500.800 School Breakfasts BD-500.820 School Lunches BD-500.830

Soup Kitchens BD-500.850 Summer Food Service Programs This and the following are old slides using the code format which has since been superseded. Customized Food Sections No agency would (or should) use all of the Food terms to index its file. Instead, each agency would choose a particular subset of terms to meet its needs. Customized For a Comprehensive I&R: Customized For a Senior I&R: BD-180.200

Food Pantries BD-180.100 BD-180.225 Food Vouchers Brown Bag Programs BD-180.250 Government Surplus Food BD-180.820.20

Food Supplements BD-240.500 Mini Markets BD-200 Food Banks BD-500.150 Congregate Meals BD-260.050 Agricultural Assistance

BD-500.350 Home Delivered Meals BD-260.150 Congregate Meals BD-500.450 Low-Cost Meals BD-260.350 Home Delivered Meals

Customized For a Disability I&R: BD-260.830 Soup Kitchens BD-180.820-20 Food Supplements BD-500.350 Home Delivered Meals This and the preceding are old slides using the code format which has since been superseded.

Factors to Consider in Determining the Level at Which to Index a Subject Area What are your agencys scope and priorities? How many resources will be listed as providing the services within that subject area? How specific are the service requests you receive in that subject area? What is the skill level of staff? How much time can they devote to maintenance? How much turnover does the staff have?

How volatile is the information you are indexing? RememberDepth of indexing can vary between individual subject areas within a database. What ultimately matters is absolute consistency within any single branch. Ramifications for Sharing Records While the ability to electronically share records among I&R agencies is awesome, doing so can produce an unworkable mess unless all parties are consistent in terms of: Indexing practicesIf you import records which have indexed secondary services into your database, your clean database will no longer be clean. Indexing termsIf youve been using

Level 4 term Food Pantries and the records you import use Level 3 term Emergency Food, searching will get muddied. Ramifications for Sharing Records (cont.) Post-merging database cleanup is tedious and exacting work . . . . . . and it will need to be done every time you merge records from different databases. Unless . . . Ramifications for Sharing Records (cont.) . . . the records are totally consistent. To have a really functional partnership,

contributors of shared records need to make a commitment to: 1. Work with other contributors to establish conventions for indexing practices. 2. Work with other contributors to establish conventions for specific terms to be used for every relevant Taxonomy branch. 3. Abide by the agreed upon conventions for indexing practices and indexing terms to be used. Getting Help with Questions About Indexing with the Taxonomy The best option is to join the AIRS Taxonomy listserv (send a blank e-mail message to [email protected])

and post your questions there. Better yet, visit www.yahoogroups.com to join the group. That way, youll be able to search the message archives and download files which have been uploaded to the group. To suggest new indexing terms, write to Georgia Sales ([email protected]). Please dont monopolize too much of her time, though. AIRS Taxonomy Listserv Front Page AIRS Taxonomy Listserv Posting Comprehensive Taxonomy Overview Revised versions are periodically published in the AIRS Journal. The most recent version is available in the Library subsection of the Resources section of the Taxonomy Web site. Keeping the Taxonomy

Up-to-Date in Your Database Your software vendor should provide a mechanism for periodically updating the Taxonomy in your resource database If your vendor doesnt provide that mechanism, youll need to update your Taxonomy manually. And that sucks. Keeping the Taxonomy Up-to-Date in Your Database Consult Georgia Sales article from v. 20 (1998) of The AIRS Journal (also available on the Taxonomy

Web site) for info on manually updating Specific Indexing Steps 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Determine of the agencys services should be logically bundled together into a service group/service cluster. Then, taking one group/cluster at a time: Identify the primary service concept(s) Is there a facility type term for it? If not, identify the most appropriate term to characterize that service concept.

Read the definition to verify that the term is right for the service group. Specific Indexing Steps (cont.) 6. 7. 8. Review the hierarchy to confirm the level selected. Have you used that term before? Did you index the concept at a higher or lower level? Remember: Youve got to be consistent! Look at the See Also references listed for the term. Should any of them also be used to index the agency service? Is a modality term* or an orientation/ philosophy term* needed to clarify the manner in which the

service is delivered? *Only applicable if your I&R database software permits you to link terms. Specific Indexing Steps (cont.) 9. Would a target group* be useful to identify the group at which the service is aimed and expedite searches? *Only applicable if your I&R database software permits you to link terms. Converting Your Database to the Taxonomy 1. 2.

3. Convert one subject area at a time. Locate the section(s) of the Taxonomy that cover(s) the types of resources to be reindexed. Determine which terms in the Taxonomy can be eliminated for use in your database. Consider: What type of resources are available in the community? What are your inclusion/exclusion criteria for your database? What types of resources does your database currently contain? Converting Your Database to the Taxonomy (cont.) 4.

5. Determine the level of detail which is appropriate for the remaining Taxonomy terms. How specific are the service requests you receive from your clients? What is the skill level of your staff? How specifically can your staff afford to index? How volatile is the information your file contains? What are your priorities? Look for legitimate shortcuts. Converting Your Database to the Taxonomy (cont.) 6.

7. Keep track of available, unavailable, and used terms. Make sure youre not spinning your wheels by indexing: * secondary services * indirect services * ancillary services * phantom services Practice Exercises During our remaining time, lets try to put the concepts and principles weve discussed today to work by indexing some resources. Refer to the slides on Specific Indexing Steps as needed. Well look for relevant Taxonomy terms via the www.211taxonomy.org Web site.

If we cant finish going through all the exercises together, please complete them on your own or working with another participant after you return to work. The sooner you reinforce this training, the more valuable it will be to you. Indexing Exercise #1 CHRISTIAN GUIDANCE CENTER 3684 Trumbull Ave., Detroit, MI 48208 313/832-1470 Purpose: (1979) A residential program designed to re-integrate recovering substance abusers into the community. Program is aimed at ex-offenders, but not limited to this group. Services: 1) Individual counseling 2) Group therapy 3) Adult basic education classes 4) GED classes 5) Recreational activities. Eligibility: Men age 18 and over. Serves the tri-county area.

What is/are the primary service(s)? CHRISTIAN GUIDANCE CENTER 3684 Trumbull Ave., Detroit, MI 48208 313/832-1470 Purpose: (1979) A residential program designed to reintegrate recovering substance abusers into the community. Program is aimed at ex-offenders, but not limited to this group. Services: 1) Individual counseling 2) Group therapy 3) Adult basic education classes 4) GED classes 5) Recreational activities. Eligibility: Men age 18 and over. Serves the tri-county area. Christian Guidance Center LX LX-8450

LX-8450-0500 LX-8450-1150 LX-8450.3300

LX-8450.8100 LX-8470 LX-8500 LX-8500.6500 LX-8500.8000 LX-8500.8500 Substance Abuse Services Substance Abuse Treatment Programs Antabuse Programs Comprehensive Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment Comprehensive Inpatient Substance Abuse Treatment Substance Abuse Day Treatment Supportive Substance Abuse Services Transitional Residential Substance Abuse Services

Primary Recovery Homes Sober Living Centers Supportive Recovery Homes CHRISTIAN GUIDANCE CENTER 3684 Trumbull Ave., Detroit, MI 48208 313/832-1470 Purpose: (1979) A residential program designed to re-integrate recovering substance abusers into the community. Program is aimed at ex-offenders, but not limited to this group. Services: 1) Individual counseling 2) Group therapy 3) Adult basic education classes 4) GED classes 5) Recreational activities. Eligibility: Men age 18 and over. Serves the tri-county area. All of these services are secondary services and should not be indexed! CHRISTIAN GUIDANCE CENTER

3684 Trumbull Ave., Detroit, MI 48208 313/832-1470 Purpose: (1979) A residential program designed to re-integrate recovering substance abusers into the community. Program is aimed at ex-offenders, but not limited to this group. Services: 1) Individual counseling 2) Group therapy 3) Adult basic education classes 4) GED classes 5) Recreational activities. Eligibility: Men age 18 and over. Serves the tri-county area. Are there any appropriate target(s)? Check the Y section outline. CHRISTIAN GUIDANCE CENTER 3684 Trumbull Ave., Detroit, MI 48208 313/832-1470 Purpose: (1979) A residential program designed to re-integrate recovering substance abusers into the community. Program is aimed at ex-offenders, but not limited to this group.

Services: 1) Individual counseling 2) Group therapy 3) Adult basic education classes 4) GED classes 5) Recreational activities. Eligibility: Men age 18 and over. Serves the tri-county area. Target Population YJ Families and Individuals Needing Support YJ-0500 At-Risk Populations YJ-0500.0100 At-Risk Adults YJ-0500.0300 At-Risk Families YJ-0500.0500 At-Risk Youth YJ-0900

Bereaved Individuals YJ-1400 Children of Aging Parents YJ-1500 Children of Divorced Parents YJ-1550 Co-Dependents YJ-1600 Community Newcomers YJ-2000 Divorced Persons YJ-2030 Ex-Offenders YJ-2050 Families of Military Personnel Indexing Exercise #2 Detroit Public Library 5201 Woodward Avenue

Detroit, MI 48202 313/833-1000 Purpose: (1865) Public library providing a broad range of information access and other services to the community. Services: 1) TIP Service--Refers individuals to community services and programs 2) Career and Employment Information Center--Provides vocational testing and guidance 3) Burton Historical Collection--Nationally known archive of local history and genealogical materials 4) Lends videotapes, DVDs, audiotapes, and CDs 5) A broad range of childrens and adult programming. Eligibility: Main Library serves all Michigan residents. Branches serve people who live, work, own property, or attend school in Detroit. What is/are the primary service(s)? Detroit Public Library 5201 Woodward Avenue Detroit, MI 48202

313/833-1000 Purpose: (1865) Public library providing a broad range of information access and other services to the community. Services: 1) TIP Service--Refers individuals to community services and programs 2) Career and Employment Information Center--Provides vocational testing and guidance, job search assistance, and resume preparation assistance 3) Burton Historical Collection--Nationally known archive of local history and genealogical materials 4) Lends videotapes, DVDs, audiotapes, and CDs 5) A broad range of childrens and adult programming. Eligibility: Main Library serves all Michigan residents. Branches serve people who live, work, own property, or attend school in Detroit. Can a Facility-Type term be used? Detroit Public Library Term(s):

Public Library (TJ-4400.6500) Information and Referral (TJ-3000) or Comprehensive Information and Referral (TJ-3000.1500) Archives (TJ-4500.8300-030) Genealogical Collections (TJ-4500.8300-230) Job Search/Placement (ND-3500.3600) Vocational Assessment (ND-2000.1500-900) Resume Preparation Assistance (ND-2000.6500-700) Target(s): None needed Theres no need to index CD/DVD/videotape loan or adult and childrens programming services since those are implicit services of almost all public libraries these days. Indexing Exercise #3 United Way Community Services 1212 Griswold Ave.

Detroit, MI 48226 313/226-9482 Purpose: (1941) Organization dedicated to uniting the community to mobilize volunteer, financial, and information resources to efficiently meet the human service needs of Detroit and southeastern Michigan. Services: 1) Operates Torch Drive, an annual public fundraising campaign to fund non-profit organizations to provide needed human and social services 2) Tel-Help--Refers callers to needed human and social services 3) Tribute Fund--Provides financial assistance to individuals in emergency situations. Program does not pay for utilities, taxes, or past due bills. 4) Speakers available to discuss the organization and its activities. Eligibility: Residents of Macomb, Oakland, and Wayne counties What is/are the primary service(s)? United Way Community Services 1212 Griswold Ave.

Detroit, MI 48226 313/22609482 Purpose: (1941) Organization dedicated to uniting the community to mobilize volunteer, financial, and information resources to efficiently meet the human service needs of Detroit and southeastern Michigan. Services: 1) Operates Torch Drive, an annual public fundraising campaign to fund non-profit organizations to provide needed human and social services 2) Tel-Help-- Refers callers to needed human and social services 3) Tribute Fund--Provides financial assistance to individuals in emergency situations. Program does not pay for utilities, taxes, or past due bills. 4) Speakers available to discuss the organization and its activities. Eligibility: Residents of Macomb, Oakland, and Wayne counties United Way Community Services Term(s): Federated Giving Programs (TD-1200.1800) Information and Referral (TJ-3000)

or Comprehensive Information and Referral (TJ-3000.1500) Undesignated Temporary Financial Aid (BR-9000) Target(s): None needed Theres no need to index the speakers, since they only appear to be available to talk about their own agencys activities (and thats an ancillary service). Indexing Exercise #4 Epilepsy Foundation of Michigan 26211 Central Park Blvd. Southfield, MI 48076 800/377-6226 Purpose: (1952) Organization committed to empowering and enhancing the lives of individuals with epilepsy and their families through support and public awareness. Services: 1) Increasing public awareness of epilepsy 2) Sponsors

two summer camps (Camp Storer and Camp Fowler) to offer children with epilepsy traditional camp activities while providing counselors trained in seizure recognition and first aid 3) Equipment Connection operates an information exchange service which matches people who are looking for used adaptive equipment (such as van-lifts, wheelchairs, and motorized carts) with others who have such items to sell or donate.. Eligibility: Residents of Macomb, Oakland, and Wayne counties What is/are the primary service(s)? Epilepsy Foundation of Michigan Term(s): Voluntary Health Organizations (TD-1200.6600-900) Note: Even though VHOs routinely provide Disease/Disability Information (LH-2700.1700), if youve used that term elsewhere in your database youre compelled to use it here, too, in addition to the Voluntary Health Organization term.

Therapeutic Camps (PL-6400.1500-850) Assistive Technology Resale/Listing Service (LH-0650.0350) Target(s): Epilepsy (YF-1800.1800) would be helpful to focus all three terms (four, if you also end up using Disease/Disability Information) Indexing Exercise #5 Hunger Action Coalition 2727 Second Ave., Suite 109 . Detroit, MI 48210 313/965-8117 Purpose: (1975) Organization which seeks to alleviate hunger and improve nutrition in Michigan through research, community education, and coordination of and support for local emergency food programs. Services: 1) Provides information, technical assistance, coordination, and advocacy for food providers 2) Links individuals

to soup kitchens, food pantries, and nutrition information 3) Provides speakers to conduct presentations about hunger and nutrition issues. Eligibility: Residents of Macomb, Oakland, and Wayne counties What is/are the primary service(s)? Hunger Action Coalition Term(s): Hunger/Poverty Action Groups (TD-1600.3200) Service Planning and Delivery Assistance (TP-8700.8000) Information and Referral (TJ-3000) or Specialized Information and Referral (TJ-3000.8000) Speakers/Speakers Bureaus (TJ-6500.8000) Target(s): Hunger/Food Issues (YZ-3280) would be helpful to qualify the Speakers/Speakers Bureaus term (and possibly all the

terms except Hunger/Poverty Action Groupsthe target term would be redundant to that term) Indexing Exercise #6 WXYZ Channel 7 20777 W. 10 Mile Rd. Southfield, MI 48075 248/827-3362 Purpose: (1953) Television station which serves as a channel of communication for news, entertainment, advertising, and other matters of current interest in the community. Services: 1) Call for ActionVolunteers help telephone callers locate information and services to resolve disputes with government agencies and the private and business sectors. 2) Ask the Lawyer-Bar association volunteers answer legal questions for telephone callers. Program provides legal information only, NOT legal representation. Eligibility: No restrictions What is/are the primary service(s)?

WXYZ Channel 7 20777 W. 10 Mile Rd. Southfield, MI 48075 248/827-3362 Purpose: (1953) Television station which serves as a channel of communication for news, entertainment, advertising, and other matters of current interest in the community. Services: 1) Call for ActionVolunteers help telephone callers locate information and services to resolve disputes with government agencies and the private and business sectors. 2) Ask the Lawyer-Bar association volunteers answer legal questions for telephone callers. Program provides legal information only, NOT legal representation. Eligibility: No restrictions WXYZ Channel 7 Term(s): Television Station/Access Systems (TJ-5500.8500) * Media Consumer Services (DD-2100.5000)

Legal Information Lines (TJ-3200.4500) Target(s): None needed * Its your call whether to index the agency as a television station. Youre presumably putting the agency into your database because of its special programs. If you index it as a television station, consistency dictates that you should also include all other local stations in your database. Contact info for TV stations is so readily accessible via the Internet or the phone book that theres really no practical Three Parting Reminders Friends dont let friends index drunk Only you can prevent bad indexing. Dont ever misuse the

word Taxonomy or Ill make you regret it Workshop Objectives Revisited To review the Taxonomys structure and design To introduce basic principles and practices in indexing To help participants recognize some of the decisions that have to be made when using the Taxonomy To discuss Taxonomy maintenance and customization procedures To have fun while were learning NotePlease take the time to fill out your workshop

evaluation forms. The feedback you supply will be helpful both to me and to planners of future conferences. For a Fun Way to Reinforce the Information Presented Today Write to me for an interactive copy of Indexing Jeopardy. My address is on the front slide. Thanks for Faed Hendry of FindHelp of Toronto for the Jeopardy template.

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