Individual Differences in Infant Attachment Security

Individual Differences in Infant Attachment Security

Parental behavior varies along at least two dimensions Responsiveness/Acceptance Control (Demandingness) Authoritarian Low acceptance/responsiveness

High control Power-assertive discipline Ex: Do it because I say so More likely to use physical punishment Authoritative High acceptance/responsiveness Moderate control

Set clear standards and consistently enforce rules Responsive to childrens needs and point of view Discipline based on reasoning/explanation Its not ok to hit people because it hurts them.

Permissive High acceptance/responsiveness Low control Make few demands for mature behavior Neglecting/Disengaged Low acceptance/responsiveness

Low control Authoritarian Childhood:

Anxious Unhappy Dependent/Easily Frustrated (esp. girls) Hostile/Aggressive (esp. boys) Authoritarian Adolescence:

Poorer social skills and lower academic achievement than children of authoritative parents Better school performance and less problem behavior (e.g., drug use, truancy) than children of permissive or neglecting parents Authoritative

Childhood: High self-esteem High self-control Generally positive mood Authoritative Adolescence: Good social skills

High academic achievement Low in problem behaviors (e.g., drug use, truancy) Permissive Childhood: Low self-control Overly demanding and dependent on

adults Permissive Adolescence: Low academic achievement More problem behaviors (e.g., truancy; drug use)

Neglecting/Disengaged Childhood: Low self-control Low self-esteem Disturbed attachment relationships (disorganized) Neglecting/Disengaged

Adolescence: Low academic achievement Poor social skills Many problem behaviors Truancy, drug use, delinquency, sexual promiscuity, depression Parenting styles (and their effects) may

not generalize to all ethnic/cultural groups Rudy & Grusec (2006) Examined correlates (parental emotion and cognition) of authoritarian parenting in individualist and collectivist cultural groups Examined relations between childrens self-esteem and

Authoritarian parenting Parental emotion and cognition Hypotheses (Within-Groups): Authoritarianism and negative maternal emotion and cognition would be related only in the individualist group Authoritarianism would be more strongly

negatively associated with childrens self-esteem in the individualist group Maternal emotion and cognition would be related to childrens self-esteem in individualist and collectivist groups Method Mothers and their 7- to 12-year-old

children living in Toronto (33 dyads in the collectivist group, 32 in the individualist group) Mothers completed questionnaire measures assessing

Parental warmth toward the child General negative affect toward the child

Positive view of the child Negative cognitions: discipline situation Anger: discipline situation Authoritarianism Collectivism Children completed a measure of self-esteem

Results H4: Within the individualist group only, authoritarianism was associated with maternal emotion and cognition (Table 2, p. 74) H5: Maternal authoritarianism was not associated with childrens self-esteem in either group

H6: Maternal emotion and cognition were associated with childrens self-esteem in both groups (Table 3, p. 75) Overall, findings suggest that authoritarianism may have different meanings in different cultural groups

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