Industrial Revolution - Mainland's Social Studies Website
The Industrial Revolution What was the Industrial Revolution? Mass production of goods by machine Meant the end of the guild system
which had run industry for 800 years What is the guild system? Hand made took too long and was expensive Was it a good thing? Changing Life
Population numbers increased New agricultural tools and techniques Improved medical treatment. Doctors actually cured people
Vaccination Jenner Anesthsia and antiscepticCrawford Long and Lister. Transportation canals and roads, iron and steam Science in Farming Keep accurate records of
Planting dates Seed used Crop yield Crop rotation: cereal, legumes and fallow Heavy plough to get through the soil Planting innovation. Seed drill
Bakewell and Selective Breeding Again Science By taking the biggest and best animals produced bigger and better offspring. In 85 years the
average cow for slaughter went from 370lbs to 840lbs The Enclosure Movement Enclosed Lands
Today Small tenant farmers evicted!! Where do British Pig Iron Production Abraham Darby uses coal to smelt iron. Improves the quality
of iron. Makes it stronger by burning out impurities. Why Did Industrialization Begin in England First?
Food production increased Population rose dramatically 1350 1750 Pop. doubled 1750 1850 Pop. doubled New larger population needs work MIGRATION Natural Resources Fast flowing rivers, canals, ports, iron
and coal deposits No wars to destroy stuff Entrepreneurs Navy to protect imports and exports Coalfields & Industrial Areas
Coal Mining in Britain: 1800 1850 1880 1914 1800-1914
1 ton of coal 30 tons 300 million tons 250 million tons 50, 000 miners
200, 000 miners 500, 000 miners 1, 200, 000 miners Young Coal Miners New Inventions of the Industrial Revolution
Cottage Industry With the growing population, need for goods, particularly cloth rose. Result was cottage industry. Each part of production spinning, weaving, finishing was done by a different family. The merchant moved
the cloth from one place to the next after it was PUT OUT Factory Production ) ) )
) ) Concentrates production in one place [materials, labor]. Located near sources of power. At first in the hills (Why? Then on coalfields
Who were the first entrepreneurs? Those who could increase production could make a lot of money. Any inventions that sped up John Kays Flying Shuttle
James Hargreaves Spinning Jenny Richard Arkwright: The Water Frame The Power Loom
Eli Whitney Cotton Gin Early Canals Britains Earliest Transportation Infrastructure
Newcommen Steam Engine James Watts Steam Engine Stephensons Rocket 1829
1830 first railway line opens Manchester to Liverpool Growth of Railways Why did it take so long to develop a rail system? Who opposed railways? Why?
The Impact of the Railroad Steam Ship developed by Robert Fulton The "Haves":
Bourgeois Life Thrived on the Luxuries of the Industrial Revolution 19c Bourgeoisie: The Industrial Nouveau Riche
Upstairs/Downstair s Life The "Have-Nots": The Poor, The Over-Worked, & the Destitute
The New Industrial City Industrial Staffordshire Problems of Pollution The Silent Highwayman - 1858
Early-19c London Worker Housing in Manchester Factory Workers at Home
Workers Housing in Newcastle Today The Life of the New Urban Poor: A Dickensian Nightmare! Child Labor in the Mines
Collier miner working at the pit face. Corves little mine cars to carry coal
Hurriers/drawers / bearers/carriers / thrusters hired by colliers to pull the mined coal from the pit face to the shaft bottom usually in corves, but sometimes just manually. Trapper Someone who sat in a confined area to open and close the door when a cart of coal came, this allowed ventilation
Young BobbinDoffers The Factory System Rigid schedule. 12-14 hour day. Dangerous conditions. Mind-numbing monotony.
Textile Factory Workers in England Factory Wages in Lancashire, Age of Worker Male Wages Female Wages 1830
under 11 2s 3d. 2s. 4d. 11 - 16 4s. 1d.
4s. 3d. 17 - 21 10s. 2d. 7s. 3d.
22 - 26 17s. 2d. 8s. 5d. 27 - 31 20s. 4d.
8s. 7d. 32 - 36 22s. 8d. 8s. 9d.
37 - 41 21s. 7d. 9s. 8d. 42 - 46 20s. 3d.
9s. 3d. 47 - 51 16s. 7d. 8s. 10d.
52 - 56 16s. 4d. 8s. 4d. 57 - 61 13s. 6d.
6s. 4d. It cost about 5 per week to keep a family of 4. Protests / Reformers Labour Movement
What was the purpose of Unions? Improve conditions, wages safety of workers Did the factory owners allow unions to be formed? Why not? Employed strike breakers! Who formed the first unions? Skilled workers who could not
easily be replaced The Luddites: 18111816 Attacks on the frames [power looms]. Ned Ludd [a mythical figure supposed to live in Sherwood Forest] The Luddites
k k Government AbolitionResponse of slavery in the colonies in 1832 [to raise wages in Britain].
Factory Act  child labor. Children under 9 not allowed to work in factories. Limited hours for older kids. k New Poor Law  indoor relief. Poor houses. Made so awful that people would rather work than go to
them! New Ways of Thinking Thomas Malthus Population growth
will outpace the food supply. War, disease, or famine control population. The poor should have
fewer children. David Ricardo Iron Law of Wages. When wages are high, workers have more children.
More children create a large labor surplus that lower wages again. Why increase wages in the first place?
The Utilitarians: Jeremy Bentham & John The goal of society is the greatest good
Stuart Mill for the greatest number. There is a role to play for government intervention to provide a social safety net. What do we call it? Welfare
The Socialists: Utopians & Marxists People as a society would operate and own the means of production, not individuals.
Their goal was a society that benefited everyone, not just a rich, wellconnected few. Communist Manifesto Fredreich Engels Karl Marx
o 2 group Haves and have nots - Bourgeoisie and proletariat) o Bourgeoisie control the means of production. Proletariat work o Gap between two grows until P rise up and overthrow B. Results in a new classless society. o Marx did not account for: Religion
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