SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE BASE ENTRY AND MULTIPLICATION OF ORGANISM RESULTS IN DISEASE COLONIZATION OCCURS WHEN A MICROORGANISM INVADES THE HOST BUT DOES NOT CAUSE INFECTION (INJURY TO CELLS) PATIENT SAFETY ISSUE CHAIN OF INFECTION
Infectious agent or pathogen Reservoir Portal of exit Mode of transmission Portal of entry Susceptible host Infectious Agent/Pathogen
Microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa Normal flora Colonization Virulence Susceptibility Review Potter & Perry Table 34-1 (pg. 643) Common Pathogens
Reservior Animate sources (humans, animals, insects) Inanimate sources (soil, water, food, medical equipment) Pathogens need a proper environment to survive (food, oxygen, water, temperature, pH, light) Carriers
Toxins: (Exotoxins, endotoxins) Portal of Exit/Entry Skin and Mucous Membranes Respiratory Tract Urinary Tract Gastrointestinal tract Reproductive Tract Blood
Susceptibility (Resistance to infection) Factors which influence susceptible: Age Nutritional status Chronic disease history Trauma Smoking The Infectious Process
Incubation Period Prodromal Stage Illness Stage Convalescence Pathogenicity of organism Localized vs. systemic DEFENSES AGAINST INFECTION
Normal flora Body System Defenses (P&P Pg.647) Inflammation VASCULAR AND CELLULAR RESPONSE EDEMA PHAGOCYTOSIS LEUKOCYTOSIS INFLAMMATORY EXUDATE SEROUS SANGUINOUS PURULENT
SPECIFIC DEFENSES AGAINST INFECTION CELL- MEDIATED IMMUNITY ANTIBODY-MEDIATED IMMUNITY HEALTH CARE ASSOCIATED INFECTION (NOSOCOMIAL) Infections that are a result of health care delivery, not present at admission
EXOGENOUS ENDOGENOUS IATROGENIC Refer to Potter & Perry Table 34-2 Pg. 648 (Sites for Causes of HAIs) Common Health-Care Associated Infections Urinary Tract Infection Surgical/Traumatic Wound Infection
Respiratory Tract Bloodstream The Nursing Process & Infection Control (Assessment)
Status of defense mechanisms Client Susceptibility Nutritional Status Stress Disease Process Medical Therapy Clinical Appearance Lab Data Lab Data
WBC Count Sedimentation Rate Cultures of sputum, urine, blood Differential Count Assessing Risk for
Infection Age Disease Processes Lifestyle Occupation Diagnostic Procedures Medications
Travel History Nutritional Status NURSING DIAGNOSIS AND PLANNING NANDA APPROVED DIAGNOSIS GOALS AND OUTCOMES MEASURABLE REALISTIC
PRIORITIES Acute Care Interventions MEDICAL AND SURGICAL ASEPSIS CONTROL/ELIMINATION OF INFECTIOUS AGENTS CONTROL/ELIMINATION OF: MODES OF TRANSMISSION PORTALS OF ENTRY RESERVOIRS
HAND HYGIENE (HCP, PATIENT, FAMILY) INTERVENTIONS ISOLATION PRECAUTIONS HYPERTHERMIA INTERVENTION ELIMINATE UNDERLYING CAUSE FEVER MANAGEMENT
HEALTH TEACHING ANTIBIOTIC THERAPY PSYCHOSOCIAL SUPPORT HEALTH CARE RESOURCES Isolation Precautions CDC and OSHA Guidelines 1. Contact
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