Informational Media

Informational Media


WHAT IS INFORMATIONAL MEDIA? I.M. presents information, facts, and explanations of topics that are of interest to the public. Magazines, newspapers, billboards, radio, TV, webpages, bulletins, advertisements, pamphlets, telephone, mail, yard signs, and marquees are all examples of I.M. 2 PARTS OF INFORMATIONAL MEDIA ARTICLES 1. Head The title

2. Deck The small words under the head, but before the article 3. Lead The first few sentences or paragraphs of an article before the first subhead 4. Subhead Smaller titles that divide the article into sections 5. Photograph A photo that supports or clarifies the article 6. Illustration A drawing that supports or clarifies the article 7. Caption The words of explanation under the photo or illustration 3 TYPES OF EVIDENCE USED IN INFO. MEDIA

1. Statistics Numbers and percentages 2. Expert Opinions The educated beliefs of a person who has studied a subject carefully or is part of a profession important to the subject 3. Results of Studies Conclusions based on research 4. Compare/contrast Compare means to show how things are alike, and contrast shows how things are different 5. Problem/Solution Presents a problem, but also suggests a solution to the problem 6. Anecdote A brief, entertaining story based on a single, interesting or humorous incident, often intended to reveal a persons character 4 ABOUT THE AUTHOR

1. Authors Purpose The writers intention: to persuade, entertain, inform, describe, warn 2. Authors Credentials The qualifications that put the author in a position of authority on a topic. 3. Authors Bias When an author has an unfair preference for a against something or someone, thereby preventing him from being objective 4. Authors Tone When you can hear the authors attitude in what hes saying (his tone of voice) 5 TYPES OF READING

1. Previewing Looking over something to see how it is organized and what content will be learned 2. Skimming Reading quickly for the main idea. This is accomplished by reading only the topic sentence and clincher sentence of each paragraph in expository and persuasive writing. 3. Scanning Looking for specific information (details) such as in fill-in-the-blank worksheets or when reading a posters looking for the date a new movie premieres. 6 PERSUASIVE TECHNIQUES 1. Semantic Slanting Vocabulary words the author chooses purposefully in order to create a bias in the

reader or to create a strong reaction in the reader. For example, Junk food will make our school children grossly obese. They will be too ugly to get dates, too lazy to hold a job, and their medical bills will selfishly drain insurance companies and unnecessarily spike premiums for those of us who practice self control. 2. Connotation Vocabulary words the author purposefully uses that have a positive or negative spin on them. For example, My wife is frugal has a positive connotation, but My wife is cheap has a negative connotation even though frugal and cheap are synonyms. 7

TYPES OF PERSUASIVE APPEALS 1. Logos Appeal to Reason/Logic Evidential appeal When the author attempts to sway the reader using impressive, rational evidence such as statistics and research. This type of appeal is allowed in scientific research and courts of law. 2. Pathos Emotional Appeal When the author attempts to sway the audience by eliciting an emotional response through the use of metaphors, anecdotes, and imagery. 3. Ethos Ethical Appeal - When an author tries to sway the readers opinion based on whats right and wrong. Ethical appeal can also be based on the character, credibility, or reliability of the writer. 8

PROPAGANDA 1.Propaganda - Information, especially of a biased or misleading nature, used to promote or publicize a particular political cause or point of view. 2.Propaganda Techniques Methods of persuasion that are not based on facts or solid arguments. 9 Propaganda Techniques 1. Testimonial An expert or a famous person supports a product, an idea, or a person. The famous person

actually says he uses it or endorses it. Ex: Basketball player Will Lang says, I never go on a road trip without my Jiffy compact hair dryer! 2. Transfer A famous or glamorous person and a product are associated in order to persuade you to transfer your positive image of the person to the product. Unlike testimonial, transfer does not quote the person. Ex: An ad shows Alison Graves, a famous actress, washing her face with Silky. The ad says, Look like a movie star. Use Silky Soap. Propaganda Techniques cont. 3. Bandwagon The reader is urged to do something just because everyone else supposedly is doing it. Ex: Everyones talking about Charge! Dont be the last to see this years best movie!

4. Name Calling The speaker criticizes a person or a product with little or no reason or evidence. (used by political campaigns and by competing stores/restaurants commercials) Ex: Gina Sheraton would make a terrible senator. How could anyone with that ridiculous hairstyle be trusted? Propaganda Techniques cont. 5. Overgeneralization/ Hasty Generalization A statement about someone or something that is too broad or based on very little evidence. Ex: When the Feline was compared with two other cars, it came out the winner in economy, traction, and general performance. Drive the best car of all. Drive the Feline! (Problem: What cars was the Feline compared

with and how were they tested?) 6. Faulty Cause and Effect The reader is led to believe that one event caused another just because it happened first. Ex: Since Jim Bennett has been mayor, traffic accidents have increased by five percent. We need a new mayor one who is concerned about our safety. Propaganda Techniques cont. 7. Either-Or The reader is told that there are only two extreme possibilities when actually there are many choices in between. Ex: If you are not in favor of a new teen center, then you must dislike young people. 8. Reasoning in a Circle The reader is told something is so just because it is so. The reason is simply another way of saying the same thing.

Ex: Nutribread is nourishing because it provides nutrients. Propaganda Techniques cont. 9. Emotional Words Words are chosen to appeal to the readers emotions rather than to his common sense. Ex: Dont settle for tired old outfits. Look and play like a professional athlete in elegant, stylish Jessama sports attire. 10. Card Stacking The advertisement only talks about the positive things about the product, not the negative aspects about it. Ex: This previouslyowned car is just right for your newly-driving 16-year-old. It is an Accord, which has one of the most respected safety records of the last 15 years. (However, the speaker fails to mention that this particular

car has been in a terrible wreck, therefore, is NOT in the same condition as a new Accord.) Propaganda Techniques cont. 11. Plain Folk The opposite of transfer and testimonial. The ad uses average people to sell the product to average people in order to give it credibility and to validate its accessibility. Ex: The father and son play ball (and make life-long memories) with a Louisville Slugger 12.Glittering Generalities - An emotionally appealing phrase so closely associated with highly valued concepts and beliefs (such as love of country and home, and a desire for peace, freedom, glory, and honor) that it carries conviction and general public approval without supporting information or reason. Ex: A large American flag waves beautifully behind the

Kentucky Fried Chicken sign in a commercial.

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