Inleiding Griekse religie: Het Griekse landschap

Whos who? The History of Archaeology or the Discovery of the Past Delitias hic Romanorum fuisse praecipuas multa indicant, maxime vero navis quae nostra aetate reperta est in fundo summersa lacus ulnis fere sub aqua duodecim Many things indicate that there have been Roman curiosities here, but above all the ship that has been found in our time, sunk to the bottom of the lake, almost 12 ells under water

Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini (Pope Pius II), 16th century E.B. Tylor Thomas Jefferson Charles Darwin C.J. Thomsen (1743-1826)

(1809-1882) (1788-1865) Heinrich Schliemann (1822-1891) General Pitt-Rivers (1827-1900)

(1832-1917) Sir William Flinders Petrie Sir Mortimer Wheeler (1853-1942) (1890-1976)

Modern Archaeology Mid 19th century, three major developments: 1. Discovery of the antiquity of humankind Ideas that human life on earth went back much further than few thousand years before Christ (Creation): invention of term prehistory

2. Three Age System C.J. Thomsen, A Guide to Northern Antiquities (1848): Stone, Bronze and Iron Age 3. Principle of evolution Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species (1859): natural selection, survival of the fittest: principle of evolution Darwins influence was felt not only in archaeology (for example, evolution in pottery typology) but also in the political thought of Marx and the anthropological thought of E.B. Tylor (evolution of society from savagery to barbarism to civilization)

1798-1800: Napoleon in Egypt Description de lgypte Jean-Franois Champollion (1790-1832), decipherer of hieroglyphics and the father of Egyptology

Rosetta Stone Cuneiform script, deciphered 1850s One of the Amarna letters, 14th century BCE Tablet dating to 24th century BCE

The hill Hissarli k (Turkey ) Different layers uncovered at the site of Troy;

Schlieman n started to excavate in 1871 The Treasure of Priam, from Troy

The Mask of Agamemnon, discovered at Mycenae Some treasures from Troy worn by Schliemanns 2nd wife Sofia

Archaeology Speculative phase (until c. 1850) Beginnings of modern archaeology (c. 1850-1900) Classificatory-historical period (c. 1900-1960) New Archaeology (c. 1960-)

Sir Arthur Evans (18511941) The Palace of Minos at Knossos, Crete Evans Minoan Civilization (c. 3100-1450 BCE) Linear A (undeciphered, Minoan); Linear B (Mycenean, deciphered by

Michael Ventris in 1952) restoration of Palace Pyramids of Giza, near Cairo Valley of the Kings, Thebes, West bank of Nile Tomb of Tutankhamen, Valley of the Kings

Howard Carter (1874-1939) Lord Carnarvon I inserted the candle and peered in, Lord Carnarvon, Lady Evelyn and Callender standing anxiously beside me

to hear the verdict. At first I could see nothing, the hot air escaping from the chamber causing the candle flame to flicker, but presently, as my eyes grew accustomed to the light, details of the room within emerged slowly from the mist, strange animals, statues and gold everywhere the glint of gold . ..

When Lord Carnarvon, the English patron who financed Carters work, could no longer stand the suspense, he asked, "Can you see anything?" Carter replied, "Yes, wonderful things." Gordon Childe (1892-1957) Changes after World War II:

Ecological approach: specialists who look specifically at environment of site - -- C-14 dating or radiocarbon dating invented by Libby (1949) -- in general: different scientific methods of dating begin to be designed

1960s: Time for Change - Excavation techniques and aids had enhanced archaeology considerably: not so much about arriving at a date, so what does it actually mean? - Traditional archaeological explanation too vague:

cultural influences etc.; how can we explain cultural processes? (processual archaeology) Lewis Binford Ian Hodder Answer: New Archaeology Binford, New Perspectives in Archaeology (1968), archaeology (summary on p. 41):

influenced by processual - Explanation vs. description - Cultural process vs. cultural history (so not based on historical explanation)

- Deductive vs. inductive (start from model/hypothesis) - Testing vs. authority - Project design vs. data accumulation

- Quantitative vs. qualitative (data sampling, significance tests etc.) - Optimism vs. pessimism Influence on field work -

Projects start from specific questions (project design) Sites explored within their environment (ecological approach) New techniques: surveys/selective excavations; advanced system of sampling and find recording; GIS-systems etc. Johann Joachim Winckelmann

(1717-1768) Question with video: Describe the 4 different stages of the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 CE and its consequences for the town of Pompeii.

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